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Religion and the State - Africa - Bibliography

african religious islamic christian

The modern African state system is a new political concept that came about from the struggle for independence. These states are organized in the matrix of the two great religious traditions: Islam and Christianity. The secular hegemonic nature of the founding of these states brings into play the political meaning of these religious traditions. Religion in Africa is projected as a part of a continuum in the debate about the "national question": Who shall rule, and how shall the state be governed? Several historical conjectures indicated that religion would have a say in addressing the question of governance. These historical conjunctures include:

  1. The institution of apartheid in South Africa with the blessing of the Dutch Reformed Church of South Africa.
  2. The Africanization of the leadership of the Christian Church at the same time that African nationalists were replacing the European colonial governors.
  3. The rise of modern anxieties, culture of crime, and graft and corruption in the political arrangements of the new states, causing life in many of these states gradually to become vulgar, morally degraded, depraved, and spiritually vacuous.
  4. The official formation of the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) in Rabat, Morocco, in 1969, the formation of the Islamic Development Bank in 1975, and the successful establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran after the revolution in 1979 led by Ayatollah Khomeini, combined with subsequent influences of Wahhabi Islam originating from Saudi Arabia and the al-Qaeda factor, especially in East Africa, all increased the climate of Islamic zealotry.
  5. Liberal democracy and economic prosperity, which African nationalists promised their masses in the 1960s and 1970s, were not achieved; rather, all the inescapable realities of lack of human dignity and economic assurances, with a deepening gap between rich and poor and rising ethnic frictions, broke down the social contract between the state and its citizens. African religious leaders with faith in their belief systems counter that religion should be the keystone in both the personal life and the fulfilling of state obligations; that, measured against the majesty of God's work, the state is subsumed under that majesty.

African states, then, in their earlier stages were conflicted in the interaction with the two great religious traditions in their midst. There was initially a love-hate relationship between the state and the two great religious traditions. Sometimes the politicians cracked down on the religious leaders or their organizations; at other times they tried to appease them. Nasser and the Ikhwan al-Muslimin (Muslim Brotherhood) in Egypt, Gadhafi and the Sanusiyya brotherhood in Libya, Nimeiri and the National Islamic Front in Sudan, all experienced a love-hate relationship. There was a period of appeasement in the relationship between state and religion, but by the 1980s, powerful Islamic and Christian movements came to be seen as threat to the very existence of the state. In such situations, the confrontations between state and religion took a different turn.

South Africa, with its "state theology," came under serious scrutiny. The Muslim community and a counterreligious consciousness among Black liberation theologians initiated a powerful ideological attack on the ideology of apartheid. Liberation theologians came to see apartheid as a form of "structural sin" and sought to persuade the religious community (the South African Council of Churches, the World Lutheran Federation, the World Council of Churches, and, more important, the World Alliance of the Dutch Reformed Church) of this. The extraordinary role of the members of the religious community (both Christian and Muslim) in mobilization of the oppressed in South African and the international community—that finally came to see apartheid as heresy and apostasy—contributed immensely to the collapse of the apartheid system.

In other parts of Africa, Christian leadership produced Pastoral Letters—a rare, frank critique of African dictatorships in Idi Amin's Uganda, Hasting Banda's Malawi, Mengistu's Ethiopia, Abacha's Nigeria, and, more recently, Mugabi's Zimbabwe. On the other hand, African political leaders who were Christian did not shy away from proclaiming publicly their Christian faith; notice the born-again Christian president of Nigeria, Olusegun Obasanjo, and the building in 1989 of one of the largest Roman Catholic churches (the Basilica in Yamoussoukro, Ivory Coast) in modern Christianity in Côte d'Ivoire by its Christian president Felix Houphouet-Boigny.

African Muslims who see the state as a sacred entity under the rule of Allah exhorted the leadership of the secular states for an Islamic dispensation as the politicians go about creating new political formations. The various Islamic organizations in varying degrees encountered problems. In Morocco, the Islamic group Justice and Welfare was ordered to disband in 1990; Algerian "Salafists" who wanted to return to pristine Islamic ideals came under great pressure from the government. The Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) was legalized in 1989. It won the elections of that year, but the Algerian government canceled the second round of elections, jailed most of the FIS leaders, and in 1992 banned the organization. Tunisia never legalized the Ennahda (Renaissance) Party, repressed its members, and closed down its newspaper. The Libyan government disrupted the Islamic movement in that country, and by the early twenty-first century the movement was unstructured, with many of its leaders imprisoned. The Islamic Party in Kenya was summarily denied official recognition during the presidency of Daniel arap Moi. But in states such as Tanzania and Uganda, Islamic organizations were encouraged to form and acquire government patronage. The Egyptian experience with the radical Islamic group "Jihad," which was implicated in the assassination of President Anwar Sadat in 1981, was very instructive to many African politicians.

The Islamic code of shari'a, which regulates the Islamic community, has received special attention in Africa. Strict Islamic laws—such as the imposition of amputation or death by stoning for transgressions such as theft, adultery, or fornication and the banning of prostitution, gambling, and consumption of alcohol—are elements embedded in the shari'a. These are elements of Islamic law that African secularists deemed too harsh.

Sudan introduced the shari'a in 1990 (although in 1983, Colonel Nimeiri had introduced the "September Laws," which recognized the shari'a as the basis of state law, it was alleged that he did so to serve his own political agenda, not as a sincere application of the shari'a). The civil war that raged in that state from 1957 pitched the north, which is Muslim, against the south, which is predominantly Christian and traditional religionists. With the introduction of the shari'a by the government, the south, under the leadership of the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army, began challenging the Islamization of the state and its extension to the south. But the Islamization program of the Hassan al-Turabi and Omar Hassan al-Bashir governments took root. Peace negotiations were in progress in 2004 to bring the north and south together, but the south was reluctant to accept the political control of an Islamic republic.

Nigeria, on the other hand, came out of the Nigeria-Biafra civil war in 1971 with the dictum "No victor, no vanquished" under the leadership of a Christian military leader, General Gowan. Yet from 1971 the southern and Middle Belt Christians were continuously victimized, and militant Muslims in Northern Nigeria killed thousands. This religious bloodletting was exacerbated with the introduction of the shari'a, first by the state of Zamfara but subsequently practiced in eleven northern states. The Amina Lawal court case, in which Amina Lawal was prosecuted for illegal sex and pregnancy out of wedlock, received national and international attention. International outrage, particularly the outrage of women's rights groups nationally and globally, and the intervention of the secular state of the Federation of Nigeria, along with a brilliant defense team saved Amina Lawal from the capital punishment authorized by the shari'a.

In addition, Muslim political leaders, in a secretive process, applied for Nigeria membership in the Organization of Islamic Conference. All these actions by the Muslim leadership led to the formation of the Christian Association of Nigeria, whose agenda aimed at putting a stop to further Islamization of the Nigerian state. The Nigerian state, however, presented itself as a mediator in Muslim/Christian relations. The state funded the building of a Christian cathedral and mosque in the federal capital of Abuja, funded pilgrimages to Mecca and Jerusalem for Muslims and Christians, respectively, and also created a Ministry of Religious Affairs.

In both states, Nigeria and the Sudan, the tendency was for religious vigilante groups to form and keep an eye open for any transgressions of shari'a regulations. The Sudan People's Liberation Army and the Christian Association of Nigeria opposed such intrusion of religious oversights in the body politic of their respective states. Unlike the Sudan, where a real war was waged to settle the matter, in other parts of Africa, including Nigeria, a religious "cold war" operated in the context of a constitutional truce.

To anyone who has looked closely enough, the religious leaders of Africa and their beliefs and faith, plainly enjoy a strength. Arguably the greatest strength of all, something truly imposing, is their ability to threaten the state. Their positions and beliefs have broader historical roots than the African states. They are not only popular, wealthy, and global in the sense that they are well connected, they are also institutionally sophisticated. Their ideas appeal to many African citizens who are poised to challenge the state whenever possible. Christians and Muslims alike in Africa should see themselves as effective intermediate civil societies that lie between the state and the household. In this sense, then, they exist to protect and advance their religious interests and values in a plural society. African governments, on the other hand, should be encouraged to look at African religious leaders and their faith as autonomous intermediaries between the state and its citizens. The role that these religious leaders have played in dislodging African dictatorships, apartheid, corruption, and social justice and their implementation of compassionate charities to help bridge the deep gap between the rich and the poor on the African continent is highly commendable. The state governments, however, have in many instances cracked down on the religious leaders and their followers in the pursuance of the dictum of political realism when they felt that the state was threatened.

Three major concerns in the relationship between state and religion in Africa can be deciphered from historical occurrences of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. First, in the genocidal activities that raged in Rwanda in 1994, certain Roman Catholic priests were said to have participated in the genocide of the Tutsis by the Hutus. The inability of the church to forestall this genocide is troublesome. Second, the recent linkages between al-Qaeda activities and some religious organizations in Africa have foreboding consequences. The intricate web of front companies and individuals in Africa who were associated with the al-Qaeda movement, allowing al-Qaeda operatives to trade in African gold, diamonds, and other gems—thus providing the economic resources and networks that led to the bombings in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam and the possible assistance given to those who shot down the U.S.. Black Hawk helicopter in Mogadishu—and al-Qaeda's presence in Sudan are all indications of serious problems for African state/religious relations. Third, Christians and Muslims in Africa are gradually accepting the electoral system as the moderating instruments to affect change in their states, but when the states are unable to accept the electoral victories of religious parties, political instability of the African states becomes inevitable.

In one sense, neither religion nor state may claim the high ground in any assessment of instability of African political culture. Yet both should strive to use their powerful influence to illuminate African lives in order to fulfill the promise of the majesty of God's/Allah's work. The genius of modern liberal education in Africa in the early twenty-first century is the pragmatic compromise that many African citizens are learning; religion has a place in pursuing the aim of social justice and freedom. Many Africans would love to have the freedom to choose for themselves how they ought to live. Their devotion to God's law and their devotion to the secular state are sometimes conflicted. But these should not be judged trivial when measured against the majesty of God's/Allah's work.

The recent use of the phrase "African Renaissance" by such leaders as President Mbeki of the Republic of South Africa once again reminds African citizens that the ideals and spirit of enlightenment that both the state and African religious leaders are exposed to could be helpful in promoting coexistence. In trying to define "African Renaissance," both the state and religious leaders in Africa should aim at reconciling God and freedom, political liberty, and pragmatic compromise. As the states in Africa mature, there is the hope that the deepest believers in Islam and Christianity will tone down their rhetoric and devise ways to coexist with the state rather than prepare for a possible showdown with the state. The African states, with all their failures, still provide the one political-legal framework that can transcend all the manifold differences between the religious traditions, can accommodate their various belief systems and ways of life, and can serve as a normative basis for their coexistence and cooperation.

Austin M. Ahanotu

Religion and the State - Europe - Rome And Revelation., The Islamic Caliphate., Christian Europe: The Middle Ages., Christian Europe: The Reformation. [next] [back] Religion and Science - Historical Review: Galileo And Darwin, Philosophical Considerations, Evolutionary Biology, Psychology, Physics, Ecology And Ethics

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about 4 years ago

MERRY CHRISTMAS AND PROSPEROUS NEW YEAR!!!



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Holy Bible says:
1."Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye
There fore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves".
- Matthew 10:16.
2."Be strong, do not fear; your God will come, he will come with vengeance;
with divine retribution he will come to save you". - Isaiah 35:4

Holy Quran says:
28:59. Nor was thy Lord the one
To destroy a population until
He had sent to its Centre
An apostle, rehearsing to them
Our Signs; nor are We
Going to destroy a population
Except when its members
Practice iniquity.

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monies towards public peace,after collecting huge taxes from tax payers,but no result.

US Government earmarking huge budget towards fighting with other countries for peace,but now americans are suffering unemployment problems and income.

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Otherwise, the public of the world will suffer due to all kind of natural calamities till the day of resurrection and also they will fail to improve in economy,businesses, unity, peace, education, health, wealth, security, faith and also
Climate changes.

I am a messenger of God in accordance with the holy Quranic verse 28:59. It is my bounden duty to protect all the communities in the world. Now¸a film under the name and style, 'Innocence of Muslims'has been published by Google and Youtube against Prophet Mohamed and Muslims which is creating trouble between Muslim and Christian brotherhoods in the world,which is against the holy Quranic verses 5:82¸20:129 and 130 and as such no Muslim can harm Christians.

The Christians and Jews can go through the Quranic verse 7:157 on the basis of holy Torah and Bible wherein Prophet Mohamed has been mentioned as prophet,after Jesus¸ but the same fact was not followed by the two communities of Jews and Christians in the world. And accordingly Jews and Christians are divided into various group till the Day of Resurrection according to the Quranic verses 5:13 and 14. God has also created Palestine to create trouble to Jews till the Day of resurrection in accordance with Quranic verses 7:163 and 167.

We conducted a survey and research that why Christians and Muslims are not cooperating with each other in the world? We found the following answers.

1. Christians are well educated and research scholars to research each and every issue brought to them, but unfortunately Satan occupying not to apply their mind to analyse that how Jesus was killed and crucified when God has given him five favours and one out of it is he brought forth the dead.
2. Jews are not accepting our Prophet Jesus that they tried to kill Jesus, but Christians are following Jews and depending upon their advice.
3. Christians fail to realise Matthew 14:23 and Quranic verse 5:14 and 9:31 that and when he had sent the multitudes away, he went up into a mountain apart to pray. If Jesus is God or a part of God then why did he pray?
4. Christians are not interpreting Matthew 27:11-14 to mean that Jesus wanted to die on the cross for the redemption of mankind and for the forgiveness of their sins. If so, then why did he ask to turn away that cup from him? Why did he cry out while on the cross?
5. Muslims are accepting Jesus as prophet and his mother Mary, but Jews disbelieve and utter against Mary, a grave false charge (that she had committed illegal sexual intercourse).
6. Muslims believe that Jesus was not killed and crucified by the Jews as revealed in the holy Quran verse 4:157 and 158.
7. Most of Muslims in the world are not educated and innocent. Some leaders and organisations are misleading young Muslims to fight with other communities as Jihad which is not recognised in the Quranic verses 5:32, 22:40, 45:14 and they are termed as perverts in accordance with Quranic verse 2:99.
8. Christians failed to interpret Quranic verse 4:157 and 158,5:14,5:82,7:158, 57:27 and 28 and 61:6 read with John 14:15-16,15:26-27,16:5-8,read with Matthew 10:16.

I am a follower of Christianity and Islam according to Quranic verse 57:28.God Almighty invites all my Christian brotherhood in the world to follow Christianity and Islam.Kindly read Quranic verse 57:27and 28 which are available in Quranic English Translation websites.

ISLAM HAS THE SECOND LARGEST POPULATION IN THE WORLD.IF PROPHET MUHAMMAD[PEACE BE UPON HIM]
CAN INFLUENCE SUCH A LARGE POPULATION FOR OVER 1500 YEARS,HOW COULD HE DO IT WITHOUT GOD'S
GRACE AND HOW COULD HE BE A FALSE PROPHET?CHRISTIANS' PROCLAMATION OF CALLING PROPHET MUHAMMAD[PEACE BE UPON HIM] AS A FALSE PROPHET IS THE MAIN REASON OF VENGEANCE AND HATRED BETWEEN CHRISTIAN AND MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD.YOU CAN FIND HIS TRUE SELF IF YOU READ HIS BIOGRAPHIES WRITTEN BY GREAT CHRISTIAN SCHOLARS.THE MOST RECCOMENDED ARE:

1.Muhammad, his life based on the earliest sources by Martin Lings.
2.Muhammad by Karen Armstrong.

HOLY QURAN SAYS:
5:18.(Both) the Jews and the Christians
Say: "We are sons
Of God, and His beloved."
Say: "Why then doth He
Punish you for your sins?
Nay, ye are but men,
Of the men He hath created:
He forgiveth whom He pleaseth,
And He punisheth whom He pleaseth:
And to God belongeth
The dominion of the heavens
And the earth, and all
That is between:
And unto Him
Is the final goal (of all)"
40:83. For when their apostles
Came to them
With Clear Signs, they exulted
In such knowledge (and skill)
As they had; but
That very (Wrath) at which
They were wont to scoff
Hemmed them in.
84. But when they saw
Our Punishment, they said:
"We believe in God,—
The One God—and we
Reject the partners we used
To join with Him."
85. But their professing the Faith
When they (actually) saw
Our Punishment was not going
To profit them.
(Such has been) God's way
Of dealing with His servants
(From the most ancient times).
And even thus did
The rejecters of God
Perish (utterly)!

SO,BEING BORN A JEW,CHRISTIAN OR MUSLIM DOES NOT GUARANTEE SALVATION.BELIEVING THE ONE TRUE
GOD AND ACCEPTING HIS APOSTLES WHEN THEY COME TO US WITH GOD'S CLEAR SIGNS ARE THE WAYS TO
ATTAIN SALVATION.SO,RESEARCH WHAT IS SAID IN OUR MESSAGES AND ACCEPT AND BELIEVE THE ONE
TRUE GOD AND THE TRUE APOSTLES OF GOD.

HOLY QURAN SAYS:
5:19.O People of the Book!
Now hath come unto you,
Making (things) clear unto you,
Our Apostle, after the break
In (the series of) our apostles,
Lest ye should say:
"There came unto us
No bringer of glad tidings
And no warner (from evil)":
But now hath come
Unto you a bringer
Of glad tidings
And a warner (from evil).
And God hath power
Over all things.

5:82.Strongest among men in enmity
To the Believers wilt thou
Find the Jews and Pagans;
And nearest among them in love
To the Believers wilt thou
Find those who say,
"We are Christians":
Because amongst these are
Men devoted to learning
And men who have renounced
The world, and they
Are not arrogant.

HOLY QURAN SAYS:
3:55. Behold! God said:
"O Jesus! I will take thee
And raise thee to Myself
And clear thee (of the falsehoods)
Of those who blaspheme;
I will make those
Who follow thee superior
To those who reject faith,
To the Day of Resurrection:
Then shall ye all
Return unto me,
And I will judge
Between you of the matters
Wherein ye dispute.


THESE ARE TRUE WORDS OF HOLY QURAN REVEALED THROUGH PROPHET MOHAMED[PEACE BE UPON HIM] WHICH GIVE GLAD TIDINGS TO CHRISTIANS AND REVEALS THAT HE WAS THE "TRUE COMFORTER" FORETOLD AND PROMISED TO THE CHRISTIANS BY JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM].

HOLY QURAN SAYS:
19:27. At length she brought
The (babe) to her people,
Carrying him (in her arms).
They said: "O Mary!
Truly an amazing thing
Hast thou brought!

28. "O sister of Aaron!
Thy father was not
A man of evil, nor thy
Mother a woman unchaste!"

29. But she pointed to the babe.
They said: "How can we
Talk to one who is
A child in the cradle?"

30. He said: "I am indeed
A servant of God:
He hath given me
Revelation and made me
A prophet;

31. "And He hath made me
Blessed wheresoever I be,
And hath enjoined on me
Prayer and Charity as long
As I live;

32. "(He) hath made me kind
To my mother, and not
Overbearing or miserable;

33. "So Peace is on me
The day I was born,
The day that I die,
And the day that I
Shall be raised up
To life (again)"

34. Such (was) Jesus the son
Of Mary: (it is) a statement
Of truth, about which
They (vainly) dispute.

35. It is not befitting
To (the majesty of) God
That He should beget
A son. Glory be to Him!
When He determines
A matter, He only says
To it, "Be", and it is.

36. Verily God is my Lord
And your Lord: Him
Therefore serve ye: this is
A Way that is straight.

37. But the sects differ
Among themselves: and woe
To the Unbelievers because
Of the (coming) Judgment
Of a momentous Day!

PROPHET MOHAMED[PEACE BE UPON HIM] WAS NOT THERE WHEN MARY[PEACE BE UPON HER] BROUGHT JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM] TO HER PEOPLE AND MOREOVER HE WAS AN UNLETERRED PROPHET AND THERE WAS NO CHANCE OF HIM READING THE OLD SCRIPTURES.THIS DETAILED DESCRIPTION ON MARY AND JESUS[PEACE BE UPON THEM] REVEALS THAT THOSE WERE NOT HIS WORDS BUT WERE THE WORDS OF GOD REVEALED THROUGH HIM.

HOLY QURAN SAYS:
4:156. That they rejected Faith;
That they uttered against Mary
A grave false charge;

4:157. That they said (in boast),
"We killed Christ Jesus
The son of Mary,
The Apostle of God";—
But they killed him not,
Nor crucified him,
But so it was made
To appear to them,
And those who differ
Therein are full of doubts,
With no (certain) knowledge,
But only conjecture to follow,
For of a surety
They killed him not:—

4:158. Nay, God raised him up
Unto Himself; and God
Is Exalted in Power, Wise;—

HERE GOD ALMIGHTY STATES CLEARLY THAT HE RAISED JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM] UNTO HIMSELF AND CRUCIFIXION WAS NOTHING BUT A CONJECTURE PLAYED BY GOD TO FOOL THE JEWS WHO TRIED TO KILL JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM].THE PERSON WHO THEY REALLY CRUCIFIED WAS NONE OTHER THAN JUDAS,THE TRAITOR OF JESUS,WHOSE FACE GOD CHANGED TO RESEMBLE JESUS.BUT PEOPLE WRONGLY BELIEVED THAT HE MUST HAVE KILLED HIMSELF BECAUSE HE WAS MISSING SINCE HE WAS CRUCIFIED AND BURIED.WHILE ALMIGHTY GOD HID JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM] FROM PEOPLE AND BROUGHT HIM BACK AFTER 3 DAYS AND THEN RAISED HIM TO HEAVEN WITH BODY AND SOUL UNTO HIMSELF.AND THIS MADE PEOPLE BELIEVE THAT JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM] WAS CRUCIFIED,RESURRECTED AND RAISED TO HEAVEN.HOW WOULD ALMIGHTY GOD ALLOW HIS BELOVED PROPHET JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM] TO BE CRUCIFIED BY HIS ENEMIES WHEN HE HAS GIVEN HIMSELF THE POWER TO BRING BACK THE DEAD?HOW JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM] COULD HAVE BEEN RESURRCTED WHEN HE WAS NOT CRUCIFIED AT ALL?OUR CHRISTIAN BROTHERS AND SISTERS ARE WORSHIPPING JUDAS[JESUS' TRAITOR] WRONGLY BELIEVING HIM TO BE JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM].THIS MISBELIEF AND FALSE CLAIM OF CHRISTIANS ON JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM] WHO IS ONE OF THE GREATEST PROPHETS OF GOD HAS RESULTED IN MISUNDERSTANDING AND VENGEANCE BETWEEN THE CHRISTIAN AND MUSLIM BROTHERHOODS.

HOLY QURAN SAYS:
22:40. (They are) those who have
Been expelled from their homes
In defiance of right,
(For no cause) except
That they say," Lord
Is God". Did not God
Check one set of people
By means of another,
There would surely have been
Pulled down monasteries, churches,
Synagogues, and mosques, in which
The name of God is commemorated
In abundant measure. God will
Certainly aid those who
Aid His (cause);—for verily
God is Full of Strength,
Exalted in Might,
(Able to enforce His Will).

BY GOD'S GRACE,WE ARE ONE AMONG THEM AND WE ARE SENDING MESSAGES TO ALL MISGUIDED ORGANISATIONS TO BRING PEACE AMONGST US.


HOLY QURAN SAYS:
45:14. Tell those who believe,
To forgive those who
Do not look forward
To the Days of God:
It is for Him to recompense
(For good or ill) each People
According to what
They have earned.

THIS ONE VERSE IS ENOUGH OF A PROOF TO MAKE CLEAR THAT ISLAM IS CLOSELY RELATED TO REASON AND PEACE AND FAR OFF FROM VIOLENCE.IT IS THE MISGUIDANCE OF SOME IRRESPONSIBLE LEADERS AND ORGANISATIONS WHICH HAS MISLED SOME INNOCENT MUSLIMS WHO ARE NOT MUCH EDUCATED.ISLAM,HOLY QURAN AND PROPHET MOHAMED[PEACE BE UPON HIM] ARE IN NO WAY RESPONSIBLE FOR IT.

HOLY QURAN SAYS:
7:157. "Those who follow the Apostle,
The unlettered Prophet,
Whom they find mentioned
In their own (Scriptures),—
In the Law and the Gospel;—
For he commands them
What is just and forbids them
What is evil; he allows
Them as lawful what is good
(And pure) and prohibits them
From what is bad (and impure);
He releases them
From their heavy burdens
And from the yokes
That are upon them.
So it is those who believe
In him, honour him,
Help him, and follow the Light
Which is sent down with him,—
It is they who will prosper."

5:33.The punishment of those
Who wage war against God
And His Apostle, and strive
With might and main
For mischief through the land
Is: execution, or crucifixion,
Or the cutting off of hands
And feet from opposite sides,
Or exile from the land:
That is their disgrace
In this world, and
A heavy punishment is theirs
In the Hereafter;

17:33. Nor take life—which God
Has made sacred—except
For just cause. And if
Anyone is slain wrongfully,
We have given his heir
Authority (to demand Qi?a?
Or to forgive): but let him
Not exceed bounds in the matter
Of taking life; for he
Is helped (by the Law).

17:107. Say: "Whether ye believe
In it or not, it is true
That those who were given
Knowledge beforehand, when
It it recited to them,
Fall down on their faces
In humble prostration,

2:99. We have sent down to thee
Manifest Signs (ayat);
And none reject them
But those who are perverse.

SO,IT IS HIGH TIME FOR THE CHRISTIANS TO READ THE HOLY QURAN IN THE TRUE LIGHT OF GOD AND BELIEVE IN ISLAM,HOLY QURAN AND PROPHET MOHAMED[PEACE BE UPON HIM]WHO IS THE "TRUE COMFORTER"FORETOLD AND PROMISED TO THE CHRISTIANS BY JESUS[PEACE BE UPON HIM].

All are requested to follow me in the interest of world peace solutions and unity in the world among all of you, as I am a messenger of God according to Quranic verse 28:59. I am a messenger of God,who has the duty to make notice the above said facts to United States of America and others in the world in accordance with the Quranic verse 4:83,as I fear that world is not peaceful in these hard days. In the circumstances stated above, I pray for peace and unity in the world and request the United States of America to ask all the researchers in the world to research the Biblical verses and Quranic verses stated above in the light of the messages posted in the website http://www.goldenduas.com in the interest of public peace and unity among all communities in the world. I request early solutions,as early as possible.

GOD BLESS.PRAISE THE LORD.SUBHANALLAH.

Your Success,
U.Ibrahim Ali

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almost 5 years ago

UMMM I LIKED IT BUT IT DIDN'T HELP ME ON MY HISTORY TEST ON THE RENISSANCE MY QUESTION WAS BROUGHT THE MUSLIM RELIGON TO AFRICA_______________.

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almost 9 years ago

"As the states in Africa mature, there is the hope that the deepest believers in Islam and Christianity will tone down their rhetoric and devise ways to coexist with the state rather than prepare for a possible showdown with the state."



Im deeply touched by this write-up. This is very true of Africa and shou;d form the nuclues of Africa's campaign by her leaders. I strongly believe that there is hope the Africa will be better one day if we have qaulity leaders