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Hamdun, Said. Ibn Battuta in Black Africa. Princeton, N.J.: Markus Weiner, 1994.

Harbeson, John W., and Donald Rothchild, eds. Africa in World Politics: Post–Cold War Challenges. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1995.

Klein, Martin A. Islam and Imperialism in Senegal: Sine-Saloum. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1968.

Levtzion, Nehemiah, and Randall Pouwels, eds. The History of Islam in Africa. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2000.

Lewis, I. M., ed. Islam in Tropical Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966.

Saad, Elias N. Social History of Timbuktu: The Role of Muslim Scholars and Notables, 1400–1900. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Sells, Michael, ed. and trans. Early Islamic Mysticism. New York: Paulist Press, 1996.

Sulaiman, Ibraheem. A Revolution in History: The Jihad of Usman Dan Fodio. New York: Mansell, 1986.

Watt, W. Montgomery. Islamic Philosophy and Theology: An Extended Survey. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1962.

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Intuitionist logic to KabbalahIslam - Africa - Muslim Frontier Communities, Islamic Philosophy, Indigenous Vehicles Of Islamization, Bibliography