Summary Of The History Of The Idea Of Bureaucracy
The history of the idea of bureaucracy is also marked by changes in the public perception of the term. Prior to Weber's defining the idea of bureaucracy, the practice of rational organization of government services according to neutral merit-based qualifications was viewed as a positive antidote to the nepotism and hereditary domination of traditional monarchical or ethnocentric forms of government. However, across most of the globe, the recent history of the term suggests that it has had a largely negative influence upon society. Indeed, the term bureaucracy now evokes epithetical connotations that refer exclusively to perceived inadequacies in government policy implementation.
One final characteristic of the history of the idea of bureaucracy is the multitude of synonyms that have evolved to describe the practice or the idea of bureaucracy in more neutral or passive terms, particularly within the past century. These synonyms include public administration, public management, public service, and governance or policy implementation. In fact, within much of the contemporary literature on bureaucracy, or public administration in particular, the two concepts are used coterminously. This tendency to conflate the idea of bureaucracy with the idea of public service, management, or administration demonstrates that the term has expanded from its original sociological implications. However, this is not to suggest that the idea of bureaucracy as the social organization of complex tasks according to rational-legal authority has lost any of its original appeal. It merely suggests that changing public preferences have altered the disciplinary significance of historical ideas and distorted them to reflect current social contexts, even if it leads to the incorrect hijacking of what once was a neutral academic term.
Arendt, Hannah. Crises of the Republic. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovitch, 1972.
——. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Rev. and enl. ed. New York: Viking, 1964.
Blau, Peter M. The Dynamics of Bureaucracy. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.
Cook, Brian J. Bureaucracy and Self-Government: Reconsidering the Role of Public Administration in American Politics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.
Creel, H. G. "The Beginnings of Bureaucracy in China: The Origin of the Hsien." Journal of Asian Studies 23, no. 2 (1964): 155–184.
Eisenstadt, S. N. The Political Systems of Empires. London: Free Press of Glencoe, 1963.
Goodsell, Charles T. The Case for Bureaucracy: A Public Administration Polemic. 3rd ed. Chatham, N.J.: Chatham House, 1994.
Habermas, Jürgen. The Inclusion of the Other: Studies in Political Theory. Edited by Ciaran Cronin and Pablo de Greiff. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1997.
Hegel, G. W. F. Elements of the Philosophy of Right. Edited by Allen W. Wood; translated by H. B. Nisbet. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Lipsky, Michael. Street Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1980.
Marx, Karl. Critique of Hegel's "Philosophy of Right." Edited by Joseph O'Malley; translated by Annette Jolin and Joseph O'Malley. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1970.
——. Marx's Eighteenth Brumaire: (Post) modern Interpretations. Edited by Mark Cowling and James Martin. London: Pluto Press, 2002.
Mbembe, Achille. On the Postcolony. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
Meier, Kenneth J. "Representative Bureaucracy: An Empirical Analysis." American Political Science Review 69, no. 2 (1975): 526–542.
Merton, Robert K. "Bureaucratic Structure and Personality." In his Social Theory and Social Structure. Rev. and enl. ed. New York: Free Press, 1957.
Perrow, Charles. "Why Bureaucracy?" In his Complex Organizations: A Critical Essay. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986.
Reese, Thomas J. Inside the Vatican: The Politics and Organization of the Catholic Church. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.
Rodney, Walter. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1981.
Scott, W. Richard. Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2003.
Skocpol, Theda. States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
Smith, Adam. 1776. "Of the Division of Labour." In Classics of Organization Theory, edited by Jay M. Schafritz and J. Steven Ott. 5th ed. Fort Worth, Tex.: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001.
Stivers, Camilla. Bureau Men, Settlement Women: Constructing Public Administration in the Progressive Era. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 2000.
——. Gender Images in Public Administration: Legitimacy and the Administrative State. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2002.
Weber, Max. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Edited and translated by H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1946.
Wenke, Robert J. "Egypt: Origins of Complex Societies." Annual Review of Anthropology 18 (1989): 129–155.
Wilson, Woodrow. "The Study of Administration." Political Science Quarterly 2, no. 2 (1887): 197–222.
Witz, Anne, and Mike Savage, eds. Gender and Bureaucracy. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 1992.
- Bureaucracy - Bibliography
- Bureaucracy - Criticisms Of The Practice Of Bureaucracy
- Other Free Encyclopedias
Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Boolean algebra to Calcium PropionateBureaucracy - The Practical Form Of Social Organization Later Known As Bureaucracy, Max Weber And The Idea Of Bureaucracy