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Tsunami

Types Of Tsunami, Tsunami In History, Predicting Tsunami—the International Tsunami Warning System, The Warning System In Action

Tsunami, or seismic sea waves, are a series of very long wavelength ocean waves generated by the sudden displacement of large volumes of water. The generation of tsunami waves is similar to the effect of dropping a solid object, such as a stone, into a pool of water. Waves ripple out from where the stone entered, and thus displaced, the water. In a tsunami, the "stone" comes from underneath the ocean or very close to shore, and the waves, usually only three or four, are spaced about 15 minutes apart.

Tsunami can be caused by underwater (submarine) earthquakes, submarine volcano eruptions, falling (slumping) of large volumes of ocean sediment, coastal landslides, or even by meteor impacts. All of these events cause some sort of land mass to enter the ocean and the ocean adjusts itself to accommodate this new mass. This adjustment creates the tsunami, which can circle around the world. Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning "large waves in harbors." It can be used in the singular or plural sense. Tsunami are sometimes mistakenly called tidal waves but scientists avoid using that term since they are not at all related to tides.

Tsunami are classified by oceanographers as shallow water surface waves. Surface waves exist only on the surface of liquids. Shallow water waves are defined as surface waves occurring in water depths that are less than one half their wavelength. Wavelength is the distance between two adjacent crests (tops) or troughs (bottoms) of the wave. Wave height is the vertical distance from the top of a crest to the bottom of the adjacent trough. Tsunami have wave heights that are very small as compared to their wavelengths. In fact, no matter how deep the water, a tsunami will always be a shallow water wave because its wavelength (up to 150 mi [240 km]) is so much greater than its wave height (usually no more than 65 ft [20 m]).

Shallow water waves are different than deep water waves because their speed is controlled only by water depth. In the open ocean, tsunami travel quickly (up to 470 MPH [760 km/h]), but because of their low height (typically less than 3 ft [1 m]) and long wavelength, ships rarely notice them as they pass underneath. However, when a tsunami moves into shore, its speed and wavelength decrease due to the increasing friction caused by the shallow sea floor.

Wave energy must be redistributed, however, so wave height increases, just as the height of small waves increases as they approach the beach and eventually break. The increasing tsunami wave height produces a "wall" of water that, if high enough, can be incredibly destructive. Some tsunami are reportedly up to 200 ft (65 m) tall. The impact of such a tsunami can range miles inland if the land is relatively flat.

Tsunami may occur along any shoreline and are affected by local conditions such as the coastline shape, ocean floor characteristics, and the nature of the waves and tides already in the area. These local conditions can create substantial differences in the size and impact of the tsunami waves even in areas that are very close geographically.


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