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In addition to the wildlife reliant on acorns as a food source, many indigenous peoples also utilized this resource. Acorns provided a staple food supply for many Native Americans, especially in California. A valuable source of nutrients, acorns are high in fat, carbohydrates, some protein, and vitamins A, C, and E. Preparations included leaching the bitter tannins by grinding the inner nut into flour, immersing this in running water, and then making either gruel or bread. Each oak species tastes different and certain species, such as California black oak (Q. kelloggii) were preferred, due to their lower tannin content. Acorns remain viable for several months following ripening and can be stored in granaries for years. Considered a sign of fertility by Nordic and Native American peoples, acorns were used symbolically in many ceremonies.

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Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) to Ockham's razorOaks - Evolution, Biology And Ecology, Diseases, Distribution, Historic Importance, Acorns, Wood, Ecological Significance - Economic importance