Other Types Of Bonds
Other types of chemical bonds also exist. The atoms that make up a metal, for example, are held together by a metallic bond. A metallic bond is one in which all of the metal atoms share with each other a cloud of electrons. The electrons that make up that cloud originate from the outermost energy levels of the atoms.
A hydrogen bond is a weak force of attraction that exists between two atoms or ions with opposite charges. For example, the hydrogen-oxygen bonds in water are polar bonds. The hydrogen end of these bonds are slightly positive and the oxygen ends, slightly negative. Two molecules of water placed next to each other will feel a force of attraction because the oxygen end of one molecule feels an electrical force of attraction to the hydrogen end of the other molecule. Hydrogen bonds are very common and extremely important in biological systems. They are strong enough to hold substances together, but weak enough to break apart and allow chemical changes to take place within the system.
Van der Waals forces are yet another type of chemical bond. Such forces exist between particles that appear to be electrically neutral. The rapid shifting of electrons that takes place within such molecules means that some parts of the molecule are momentarily charged, either positively or negatively. For this reason, very weak, transient forces of attraction can develop between particles that are actually neutral.
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Pauling, Linus. The Nature of the Chemical Bond and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals: An Introduction to Modern Structural Chemistry. 3rd edition. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1960.
Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Categorical judgement to ChimaeraChemical Bond - History, The Origin Of Bond Symbolism, Development Of The Modern Theory Of Bonding, Bond Types