Other Free Encyclopedias » Science Encyclopedia » Science & Philosophy: A-series and B-series to Ballistic Missiles - Categories Of Ballistic Missile » Australia - Topography And Origin Of Australia, Splitting Of Australia From Antarctica, Seismic Activity And Faulting, Overall Geological Structure - South Australian mountains, Glaciers and ocean inundations, Geology of Tasmania, Climate

Australia - Natural Resources

reserves billion western south

Of course geology is inextricably intertwined with natural resources and mineral exploitation. Minerals in Australia have had a tremendous impact on the country's human history and patterns of settlement. Alluvial gold (gold sediments deposited by rivers and streams) spurred several gold fevers and set the stage for Australia's present demographic patterns. During the post-World War II period there has been almost a continuous run of mineral discoveries, including gold, bauxite, iron, and manganese reserves as well as opals, sapphires, and other precious stones.

It is estimated that Australia has 24 billion tons (22 billion tonnes) of coal reserves, over one-quarter of which (7 billion tons/6 billion ton) is anthracite or black coal deposited in Permian sediments in the Sydney Basin of New South Wales and in Queensland. Brown coal suitable for electricity production in found in Victoria. Australia meets its domestic coal consumption needs with its own reserves and exports the surplus.

Natural gas fields are liberally distributed throughout the country and now supply most of Australia's domestic needs. There are commercial gas fields in every state and pipelines connecting those fields to major cities. Within three years, Australian natural gas production leapt almost 14-fold from 8.6 billion cu ft (258 million cu m) in 1969, the first year of production, to 110 billion cu ft (3.3 billion cu m) in 1972. All in all, Australia has trillions of tons of estimated natural gas reserves trapped in sedimentary strata distributed around the continent.

Australia supplies much of its oil consumption needs domestically. The first Australian oil discoveries were in southern Queensland near Moonie. Australian oil production now amounts to about 25 million barrels per year and includes pumping from oil fields off northwestern Australia near Barrow Island, Mereenie in the southern Northern Territory, and fields in the Bass Strait. The Barrow Islands, Mereenie, and Bass Strait fields are also sites of natural gas production.

Australia has rich deposits of uranium ore, which is refined for use for fuel for the nuclear power industry. Western Queensland, near Mount Isa and Cloncurry contains three billion tons (2.7 billion tonnes) of uranium ore reserves. There are also uranium deposits in Arnhem Land in far northern Australia, as well as in Queensland and Victoria.

Most of Australia's substantial iron ore reserves are in Western Australia in and around the Hammersley Range. Australia has billions of tons of iron ore reserves, exporting magnetite iron from mines in Tasmania to Japan while still extracting ore from older mines on the Eyre Peninsula of South Australia and in the Koolyanobbing Range of southern Western Australia.

The Western Australian shield is rich in nickel deposits that were first discovered at Kambalda near Kalgoorlie in south Western Australia in 1964. Other nickel deposits have been found in old goldmine areas in Western Australia. Small quantities of platinum and palladium have been extracted side-by-side with nickel reserves.

Australia is also extremely rich in zinc reserves, the principal sources for which are Mt. Isa and Mt. Morgan in Queensland. The Northern Territory also has lead and zinc mines as well as vast reserves of bauxite (aluminum ore), namely at Weipa on the Gulf of Carpenteria and at Gove in Arnhem Land.

Gold production in Australia, which was substantial earlier in the century, has declined from a peak production of four million fine ounces in 1904 to several hundred thousand fine ounces. Most gold is extracted from the Kalgoorlie-Norseman area of Western Australia. The continent is also well-known for its precious stones, particularly white and black opals from South Australia and western New South Wales. There are sapphires and topaz in Queensland and in the New England District of northeastern New South Wales.

Because of its aridity, Australia suffers from leached, sandy, and salty soils. The continent's largely arid land and marginal water resources represent challenges for conservation and prudent environmental management. The challenge is to maximize the use of these resources for human beings while preserving ecosystems for animal and plant life.


Resources

Books

Brizga, Sandra, and Brian L. Finlayson, eds. River Management: The Australasian Experience. John Wiley & Sons, 2000.

Drummond, Barry J., ed. The Australian Lithosphere. 1991. The Geology of South Australia. South Australia: State Print, 1993.

Hamblin, W.K., and E.H. Christiansen. Earth's Dynamic Systems. 9th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001.

Hancock P. L. and Skinner B. J., eds. The Oxford Companion to the Earth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Morrison, Reg. Australia: Land Beyond Time. Ithica, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002.


Periodicals

"Underground Current Electrifies Australia." New Scientist (March 30, 1991): 10.


Robert Cohen

[back] Australia - Mountain-building And Glaciation In Victoria

User Comments

Your email address will be altered so spam harvesting bots can't read it easily.
Hide my email completely instead?

Cancel or

Vote down Vote up

about 4 years ago

i am in seventh grade and i need to learn about resourses of Australia for a project and the prject is worth 90% of my total grade for the year and its due 10/11/10

Vote down Vote up

over 3 years ago

got me an A on my test i was absent on

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

Thank you so much :)this helped me loads in my econ project :)

Vote down Vote up

about 6 years ago

it helped me alot on my history project :)

Vote down Vote up

over 3 years ago

its amazinggggg.....it helped me a lot in my project.....:):):)

Vote down Vote up

over 3 years ago

cool and hleped on my home work

Vote down Vote up

over 3 years ago

tanks this info is realy good

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

This info really helped me with my Australia's Natural Resources project.... thanks :)

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

This is really good but i needed to know what kind of government they have. all i found out was that there is a Liberal party and a Labor party. Im in fourth grade and it is really hard. I have a mean teacher that thinks to nmuch of me it s hard to get nfo because she only lets us to go to certain websites. I HATE 4TH GRADE!!!

Vote down Vote up

about 3 years ago

excellent website very informative on the natural resources of Australia. I hope people get a lot out of this website

rating 8/10





Don't get offended on my score i am harsh

Contact me on- petergruwreveiws@hotmail.com

Vote down Vote up

about 3 years ago

hi

I found this website perfect for my homework. I had to name 5 natural resources australia produces and you gave me 6!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Vote down Vote up

almost 3 years ago

masoul and body

Vote down Vote up

almost 3 years ago

To sell to you the mineral black iro ore

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

thanks! I was supposed to do a presentation on climate and resources of Australia, but I slacked off and had to do it at the last minute! you're a lifesaver!

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

australia

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

good website :0

Vote down Vote up

over 3 years ago

i dont know what site to go o n for austrailias non renewable resources i think maybe it might be on google so i went on the and it came up as someone giving me an answer saying '

i dont know the answer so i might tell you later'

what kind of answer is thet?!

Vote down Vote up

about 3 years ago

this sucks....

Vote down Vote up

9 months ago

Thx

Vote down Vote up

almost 3 years ago

masoul

Vote down Vote up

almost 3 years ago

Awesome, helped me with my stupid business project.. thanks so much!

Vote down Vote up

over 3 years ago

Thanks!
Helped me on my homework [:

Vote down Vote up

over 3 years ago

not a very good website

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

natural resources....... UMMMM



iloveyou

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

im in the 6th grade and have been working on this paper for 2 weeks now and this info was a big help so thank you for all your help i o u big time!

Vote down Vote up

about 6 years ago

umm... this is amazing and it really can help people with the homework and projects or if someone wants to know a little bit more about there back round !! so thnx to who ever put it on here and good luck to you all *-)

Vote down Vote up

over 3 years ago

i need to no bout the resouces for mi report n this crap is not doin nothin for me so put more on peazzzzzz

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

Dear Sit ,

Iwant to buy full the project

Ineed you send to me the final

sign sale a contract by email

possible you print the name and

the address on the document

Fawaz N . Alsalamah

Address

Malas Area ,

Riyadh City 11422 ,

Saudi Arabia .

please send to me the document by

email

Iserious

Iwaiting you

Thank

Sincerely

Fawaz N . Alsalamah

Email :

hla202@yahoo.com



Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

Kangoroos

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

Thank you so much

Vote down Vote up

about 3 years ago

I need info about austraila

Vote down Vote up

about 4 years ago

its good to know about oz resource. meanwhile i also need ideas for getting closer to manufacturing process and business idea with respect to Australian government subsidy.

Vote down Vote up

over 2 years ago

Awesome, this helped me with my social studies project. THANKS!!!!!

Vote down Vote up

almost 3 years ago

To sell to you the mineral black iro ore

Vote down Vote up

5 months ago

thanks

Vote down Vote up

11 months ago

very good saved ma buns

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

Thanks i need it for a project. Yay internet! :D

Vote down Vote up

over 1 year ago

Thank you so much I'm 14 and doing a project, this will help me sooo much =^...^=

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

It is excellent as it helped in school projects.

Vote down Vote up

almost 2 years ago

i am in the sixth grade and i have to completet my project.thanx to this site