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Mulberry Family (Moraceae) - Flowers, Fruits And Leaves

fig cultivated female synconium

Species of the mulberry family may be either monoecious or dioecious, depending on whether male and female flowers occur on the same plant (monoecious) or on separate plants (dioecious). Flowers of the Moraceae are in tightly packed groups, known as heads, spikes, catkins, or umbels. Fig flowers are produced inside a synconium, a hollow fleshy structure. The small flowers lack petals. Male flowers consist of four sepals, which are usually leaf-like appendages, and four stamens. Female flowers consist of four sepals and a pistil with a two-chambered ovary.

The fruit developed from a single female flower is either a fleshy drupe or a dry achene. The flowers fuse as they mature after fertilization, and a multiple fruit forms. The multiple fruit consists of small drupes or achenes grouped together in a single unit, and is usually round or oval shaped.

The best known fruit of the Moraceae is that of the common fig (Ficus carica), which has been cultivated for thousands of years. These cultivated figs develop without pollination, as this species does not produces male flowers. It is actually the synconium that is referred to as the fruit of the fig. In the case of fig varieties which are pollinated, the true fruit, an achene, develops inside the synconium. Figs are pollinated by wasps.

A wild form of the common fig, known as the caprifig, does produce male flowers. Pollen of the caprifig is sometimes used by fig breeders to fertilize female flowers of cultivated figs. In this process, known as caprification, a female gall wasp, carrying pollen from the caprifig, enters the synconium of a cultivated fig, where she pollinates the flowers, lay eggs, dies, and is absorbed by the synconium as the fruit develops. Figs produced by caprification are usually larger than cultivated fig fruits.

The fruits of some Moraceae, such as those from the jackfruit (Artocarpus integra), are very large, and can be up to 3 ft (1 m) long and weigh up to 99 lb (45 kg), although 44-55 lb (20-25 kg) is more common. Jackfruit leaves are much smaller than the fruits, usually 1.6 in (4 cm) or less.

Moraceae leaves occur in a variety of shapes and sizes. For example, breadfruit, (Artocarpus communis), has lobed leaves that reach 2 ft (61 cm) in length. The common fig also has deeply lobed leaves. Other species, such as the creeping fig (Ficus pumila), have cordate leaves that are much smaller, with entire margins. It is not unusual to find both lobed and unlobed leaves on the same plant, especially in mulberries (Morus spp.). Leaves can occur singly on the stem, on alternating sides. At the base of a young leaf's petiole is a pair of stipules, but these soon fall off and leave a small scar on the stem.

Species of the Moraceae may be evergreen, or they may have deciduous leaves that fall off at the end of the growing season.


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“Dr. APIS” SCIENCE SPECTRUM

Objective: To Establish the Repository of Contributions of Eminent Scholars and Information on Science and Culture For The Society. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eugen Baumann : Biochemist of the Day
( 3 November). ------------------------------------------------------------------------
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(Birth: 12 December, 1846 )
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(Death: 3 November, 1896)
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Eugen Baumann (December 12, 1846 – November 3, 1896) was a German chemist. He was one of the first people to create polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and, together with Carl Schotten, he discovered the Schotten-Baumann reaction.
Baumann was born in Cannstatt, which is now part of Stuttgart. After he attended a gymnasium in Stuttgart, he was educated in the pharmacy of his father. During his time in Stuttgart, he already attended the lectures of Hermann von Fehling at the University of Stuttgart.
To broaden his education, he went to Lübeck and Gothenburg to work in pharmacies there. Later, he studied pharmacy at the University of Tübingen. He passed his first exam in 1870 and received his PhD in 1872 for work with Felix Hoppe-Seyler. He followed Hoppe-Seyler to the University of Straßburg where did his habilitation in 1876. The same year, Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymondoffered him a position as the Head of the Chemistry Department of the Institute of Physiology in Berlin. In 1882, Baumann became professor of medicine at that institute, and subsequently obtained professor position at the University of Freiburg.
In 1895, he took over the management of Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie with Albrecht Kossel.
From 1883 till his death, Baumann was married to Theresa Kopp, the daughter of chemist Hermann Kopp, and they had five children. He died at the age of 49 due to a heart problem.[1]
The organosulfur compounds of the urine were his starting point into the physiological chemistry.[2] He identified the source for aromatic compounds in urine being the aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine. He influenced the organosulfur chemistry by the synthesis of thioacetals and thioketals. These substances were subsequently used by other scientists, for example for anesthesia. Together with his coworkers, he was able to prove that thyroxine was the active ingredient in the thyroid gland.[1]
During his work at the physiological institute, Baumann, together with Carl Schotten, discovered a method to synthesize amides from amines and acid chlorides; this method is still known as the Schotten-Baumann reaction.[3]
The Schotten–Baumann reaction is a method to synthesise amides from amines and acid chlorides:
Sometimes the name for this reaction is also used to indicate the reaction between an acid chloride and an alcohol to form an ester. The reaction was first described in 1883 by German chemists Carl Schotten and Eugen Baumann.[4][5][6][7]
In the first step an acid chloride reacts with an amine so that an amide is formed, together with a proton and a chloride ion. Addition of a base is required to absorb this acidic proton, or the reaction will not proceed. Often, an aqueous solution of a base is slowly added to the reaction mixture.
The name "Schotten–Baumann reaction conditions" is often used to indicate the use of a two-phase solvent system, consisting of water and an organic solvent. The base within the water phase neutralizes the acid, generated in the reaction, while the starting materials and product remain in the organic phase, often dichloromethane or diethyl ether. The presence of a base prevents the amine reactant from being protonated, which would make it unable to react as a nucleophile.
The Schotten–Baumann reaction or reaction conditions are widely used today in organic chemistry. Examples include:
• synthesis of N-vanillyl nonanamide, also known as synthetic capsaicin
• synthesis of benzamide from benzoyl chloride and a phenethylamine
• acylation of a benzylamine with acetyl chloride (acetic anhydride is an alternative)
in the Fischer peptide synthesis (Hermann Emil Fischer, 1903)[8] an α-chloro acid chloride is condensed with the ester of an amino acid. The ester is then hydrolyzed and the acid converted to the acid chloride enabling the extension of the peptide chain by another unit. In a final step the chloride atom is replaced by an amino group completing the peptide synthesis.
References:
1. A. Kossel (1897). "Obituary: Eugen Baumann". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 30 (3): 3197–3213. doi:10.1002/cber.189703003150.
2. Winfried R. Pötsch, Annelore Fischer and Wolfgang Müller with contributions of Heinz Cassenbaum: Lexikon bedeutender Chemiker, VEB Bibliographisches Institut Leipzig, 1988, p. 31, ISBN 3-323-00185-0.
3. Ihde, Aaron John (1984). The development of modern chemistry. Courier Dover Publications. p. 335. ISBN 0-486-64235-6.
4. W Pötsch. Lexikon bedeutender Chemiker (VEB Bibliographisches Institut Leipzig, 1989) (ISBN 3-323-00185-0)
5. M B Smith, J March. March's Advanced Organic Chemistry (Wiley, 2001) (ISBN 0-471-58589-0).
6. Schotten, C. (1884). "Ueber die Oxydation des Piperidins". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 17: 2544. doi:10.1002/cber.188401702178.
7. Baumann, E. (1886). "Ueber eine einfache Methode der Darstellung von Benzoësäureäthern". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 19: 3218. doi:10.1002/cber.188601902348.
8. Emil Fischer (1903). "Synthese von Polypeptiden". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 36 (3): 2982–2992. doi:10.1002/cber.19030360356.


File: Dr.APIS.3.November@Eugen.Baumann. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Acknowledgement: Girija Girish Tambe of Vaishnavi Xerox helped for Collection of images in the Science Spectrum of 3 November, 2016. All the mistakes in the collection of information from website, it’s compilation and communication belongs exclusively to : Vitthalrao B. Khyade . Please do excuse for the mistakes. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
“Dr. APIS”, Shrikrupa Residence, Teachers Society, Malegaon Colony (Baramati) Dist. Pune – 413115. vbkhyadevb.2016@gmail.com

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------- Dr.APIS@World.of.Science.Information
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“Dr. APIS”
SCIENCE SPECTRUM

Objective: To Establish the Repository of Contributions of Eminent Scholars and Information on Science and Culture For The Society. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
James Smithson: Scientist of the Day ( 27 June) -------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------
(Birth: 31 March,1765)
(Death: 27 June, 1929) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
James Smithson, MA, FRS (31 March, 1765 – 27 June 1829) was an English chemist and mineralogist. He was the founding donor of the Smithsonian Institution.
Smithson was the illegitimate child of the 1st Duke of Northumberland, and was born secretly in Paris, as James Lewis Macie. Eventually he was naturalized in England and he attended college, studying chemistry and mineralogy. At the age of twenty-two, he changed his surname from Macie to Smithson, his father's surname.[1] Smithson traveled extensively throughout Europe publishing papers about his findings. Considered an amateur in his field, Smithson maintained an inheritance he acquired from his mother and other relatives. He was never married and had no children, therefore, when he wrote his will he left his estate to his nephew, or his nephew's family if his nephew died before Smithson. If his nephew was to die without a family, Smithson's will stipulated that he would donate his estate to the founding of an educational institution in Washington, D.C., in the United States. His nephew died and could not claim to be the recipient of his estate; therefore, Smithson became the founding donor of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. He never visited the United States.
James Smithson was born on 31 March, 1765 (31.march@dr.apis.science.leaflet ) to Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland and Elizabeth Hungerford Keate Macie.[2] His mother was the widow of James Macie, a wealthy man from Weston, Bath.[3] An illegitimate child, Smithson was born in secret in Paris, making his exact birth date a mystery. His birth name was James Lewis Macie, and after the death of his parents he changed his last name to Smithson in 1801.[2][4] He was educated and eventually naturalized in England.[3] In 1766, his mother inherited Hungerfords of Studley, where her brother had lived up until his death.[5] Smithson enrolled at Pembroke College, Oxford in 1782 and graduated in 1786, later taking his MA.[6][7]
Smithson was nomadic in his lifestyle, traveling throughout Europe.[2] As a student, in 1784, he participated in a geological expedition with Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond, William Thornton and Paolo Andreani of Scotland and the Hebrides.[8] He was in Paris during the French Revolution.[2] In August 1807 Smithson became a prisoner of war while in Tönning during the Napoleonic Wars. He arranged a transfer to Hamburg, where he was again imprisoned, now by the French. The following year, Smithson wrote to Sir Joseph Banks and asked him to use his influence to help free Smithson. Banks succeeded and Smithson returned to England.[9] He never married or had children.[2] Smithson's wealth stemmed from the splitting of his mother's estate with his half-brother, Col. Henry Louis Dickinson.[5]
Scientific work:
Smithson's research work was eclectic. He studied subjects ranging from coffee making to the use of calamine in making brass, which would eventually be called smithsonite. He also studied the chemistry of human tears, snake venom and other natural occurrences. Smithson would publish twenty-seven papers.[2] He was nominated to the Royal Society of London by Henry Cavendish and was made a fellow on April 26, 1787.[10] Smithson socialized and worked with scientists Joseph Priestley, Sir Joseph Banks, Antoine Lavoisier, and Richard Kirwan.[1]
His first paper was presented at the Royal Society on July 7, 1791, "An Account of Some Chemical Experiments on Tabasheer."[11] In 1802 he read his second paper, "A Chemical Analysis of Some Calamines," at the Royal Society. It was published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London and was the documented instance of his new name, James Smithson. In the paper, Smithson challenges the idea that the mineral calamine is an oxide of zinc. His discoveries made calamine a "true mineral."[12] He explored and examined Kirkdale Cave and published about his findings in 1824. His findings successfully challenged previous beliefs that the fossils within the formations at the cave were from the Great Flood.[13] Smithson is credited with first using the word "silicates".[1]
Later life and death:
Smithson died in Genoa, Italy on June 27, 1829.[2][14] He was buried in Sampierdarena in a Protestant cemetery.[14] In his will, Smithson left his fortune to his nephew, Henry James Hungerford.[5] In the will, which was written in 1826, Smithson stated that Hungerford or Hungerford's children would receive his inheritance, and if Hungerford did not live, and had no children to receive the fortune, he would donate it to the United States to have an educational institution called the Smithsonian Institution founded.[15] Hungerford died on June 5, 1835, unmarried and leaving behind no children, and the United States was the recipient.[15][16] In his will, Smithson explained the Smithsonian mission:
"I then bequeath the whole of my property, . . . to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men."[15]
Legacy and the Smithsonian:
It was not until 1835 that the United States government was informed about the bequest. Aaron Vail wrote to Secretary of State John Forsyth.[17] This information was then passed onto President Andrew Jackson who then informed Congress. A committee was organized and the Smithsonian Institution was founded.[18] Smithson's estate was sent to the United States, accompanied by Richard Rush. The estate arrived as gold sovereigns in eleven boxes.[19][20] Smithson's personal items, scientific notes, minerals, and library also traveled with Rush.[19] The gold was transferred to the treasury in Philadelphia and was reminted into $508,318.46.[20] The final funds from Smithson were received in 1864 from Marie de la Batut, Smithson's nephew's mother. This final amount totaled $54,165.38.[21]
On February 24, 1847, the Board of Regents, who oversaw the creation of the Smithsonian, approved the seal for the institution. The seal, based on an engraving by Pierre Joseph Tiolier, was manufactured by Edward Stabler and designed by Robert Dale Owen.[22] Smithson's papers and collection of minerals were destroyed in a fire in 1865, however, his collection of 213 books remain intact at the Smithsonian.[2][23][24] The Board of Regents acquired a portrait of Smithson, which shows Smithson dressed in Oxford University student attire. The painting, by James Roberts, is now on display in the crypt at the Smithsonian Castle.[25] An additional portrait, a miniature, and the original draft of Smithson's will were acquired in 1877, which now reside in the National Portrait Gallery and Smithsonian Institution Archives, respectively.[26] Additional items were acquired from Smithson's relatives in 1878.[27]
Relocation of Smithson's remains to Washington:
Smithson was buried just outside of Genoa, Italy. The United States consul in Genoa was asked to maintain the grave site, with sponsorship for its maintenance coming from the Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Secretary Samuel P. Langley visited the site, contributing further money to maintain it and requested a plaque be designed for the grave site. Three plaques were created by William Ordway Partridge. One was placed at the grave site, a second at a Protestant chapel in Genoa, and the last was gifted to Pembroke College, Oxford. Only one of the plaques exists today. The plaque at the grave site was stolen and then replaced with a marble version. During World War II, the Protestant chapel was destroyed and the plaque was looted. A copy was eventually placed at the site in 1963.[23] The grave site itself was going to be relocated in 1905, and in response, Alexander Graham Bell, who was a regent for the Smithsonian, requested that Smithson's remains be moved to the Smithsonian Institution Building. In 1903, Bell and his wife, Mabel Gardiner Hubbard, traveled to Genoa to exhume the body. The body set sail from Genoa on January 7, 1904 and arrived on January 20. On January 25, a ceremony was held and the body was escorted through Washington, D.C. by the United States Cavalry.[28] When handing over the remains to the Smithsonian, Bell stated:
"And now... my mission is ended and I deliver into your hands ... the remains of this great benefactor of the United States.”[28]
The coffin then lay in state in the Board of Regents' room, where objects from Smithson's personal collection were on display.[28]
Memorial:
After the arrival of Smithson's remains, the Board of Regents asked Congress to fund a memorial. Artists and architects were solicited to create proposals for the monument. Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Louis Saint-Gaudens, Gutzon Borglum, Totten & Rogers, Henry Bacon, and Hornblower & Marshall were some of the many artists and architectural firms who submitted proposals. The proposals varied in design, from elaborate monumental tombs that, if built, would have been bigger than the Lincoln Memorial, to smaller monuments just outside the Smithsonian Castle. Congress decided not to fund the memorial. To accommodate the fact that the Smithsonian would have to fund the memorial, they used the design of Gutzon Borglum, which suggested a remodel of the south tower room of the Smithsonian Castle to house the memorial surrounded by four Corinthian columns and a vaulted ceiling. Instead of the tower room, a smaller room at the north entrance, which was a children's museum, would house an Italian-style sarcophagus.[29]
On December 8, 1904, the Italian crypt was shipped, in sixteen crates from Italy. It traveled on the same ship that the remains of Smithson traveled on. Architecture firm Hornblower & Marshall designed the mortuary chapel, which included marble laurel wreaths and a neo-classical design. Smithson was entombed on March 6, 1905. His casket, which had been held in the Regent's Room, was carried down the spiral staircase of the Castle and placed into the ground underneath the crypt. This chapel was to serve as a temporary space for Smithson's remains until Congress approved a larger memorial. However, that never happened, and the remains of Smithson still lie there today.[30]






References:
1. a b c Colquhoun, Kate (31 May 2007). "A very British pioneer". The Telepgrah. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
2. a b c d e f g h "James Smithson". Smithsonian History. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
3. a b Goode, George Brown (1897). Birth of James Smithson. New York: De Vinne Press. pp. 1, 9.
4. "James Macie Changes His Name to Smithson". Public Records Office, Great Britain. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
5. a b c Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C: De Vinne Press. p. 22.
6. "James Smithson Enrolls at Oxford". Record Unit 7000, Box 5. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
7. Goode, George Brown (1880). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. pp. 10–11.
8. Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. p. 10.
9. "Smithson Held as a Prisoner of War". James Smithson Collection, 1796-1951. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
10. Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. p. 11.
11. Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. p. 11.
12. Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: Di Vinne Press. pp. 12–13.
13. Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century.. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. pp. 13–14.
14. a b Rhees, William Jones (1901). The Smithsonian Institution: Documents Relative to Its Origin and History: 1835-1899, Vol. 1, 1835-1887. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 13.
15. a b c Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. pp. 19–21.
16. Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century.. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. p. 25.
17. Rhees, William Jones (1901). The Smithsonian Institution: Documents Relative to Its Origin and History: 1835-1899, Vol. 1, 1835-1887. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 8–9.
18. Rhees, William Jones (1901). The Smithsonian Institution: Documents Relative to Its Origin and History: 1835-1899, Vol. 1, 1835-1887. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 125.
19. a b Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. p. 30.
20. a b "Smithson's Legacy and Effects Arrive in NY". Chronology of Smithsonian History. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
21. Rhees, William Jones (1901). The Smithsonian Institution: Documents Relative to Its Origin and History: 1835-1899, Vol. 1, 1835-1887. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 116–117.
22. Rhees, William J. (1879). Journals of the Proceedings of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 1846-76, Reports of Committees, Statistics, Etc.. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. pp. 445–446.
23. a b Stamm, Richard E. "The Italian Grave Site". Mr. Smithson Goes to Washington And the Search for a Proper Memorial. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
24. "A Man of Science". From Smithson to Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
25. "Purchase of Smithson Portrait". Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
26. "Smithson Portrait and Papers Purchased". Record Unit 7000, Box 3, Folder 7. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
27. "Smithson Artifacts Obtained from de la Batut". Record Unit 7000, p. Box 3, Folder 7. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
28. a b c Stamm, Richard E. "The Exhumation and Journey to America". Mr. Smithson Goes to Washington. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
29. Stamm, Richard E. "The Search for a Proper Memorial". Mr. Smithson Goes to Washington. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
30. Stamm, Richard E. "Smithson's Crypt". Mr. Smithson Goes to Washington. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
31. "Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland". The Peerage. 27 January 2013.
32. A genealogical history of the dormant, abeyant, forfeited, and extinct peerages of the British empire, Sir Bernard Burke, Harrison, 1866.
33. 31.march@dr.apis.science.leaflet

File: Dr.APIS.27.June@James.Smithson
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Each and Every Change Brings Opportunity for Fortified Development
………..Vitthalrao B. Khyade
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Acknowledgement: Girija Girish Tambe of Vaishnavi Xerox helped for Collection of images in the Science Spectrum of 27 June, 2016. All the mistakes in the collection of information from website, it’s compilation and communication belongs exclusively to : Vitthalrao B. Khyade. Please do excuse for the mistakes. ----------------------------------------------------- Dr.APIS@World.of.Science.Information -------------------------------------------------------------------- “Dr. APIS”, Shrikrupa Residence, Teachers Society, Malegaon Colony (Baramati) Dist. Pune – 413115. vitthalrao.khyade@gmail.com

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over 2 years ago




“Dr. APIS”
SCIENCE SPECTRUM

Objective: To Establish the Repository of Contributions of Eminent Scholars and Information on Science and Culture For The Society. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
James Smithson: Scientist of the Day ( 27 June) -------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------
(Birth: 31 March,1765)
(Death: 27 June, 1929) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
James Smithson, MA, FRS (31 March, 1765 – 27 June 1829) was an English chemist and mineralogist. He was the founding donor of the Smithsonian Institution.
Smithson was the illegitimate child of the 1st Duke of Northumberland, and was born secretly in Paris, as James Lewis Macie. Eventually he was naturalized in England and he attended college, studying chemistry and mineralogy. At the age of twenty-two, he changed his surname from Macie to Smithson, his father's surname.[1] Smithson traveled extensively throughout Europe publishing papers about his findings. Considered an amateur in his field, Smithson maintained an inheritance he acquired from his mother and other relatives. He was never married and had no children, therefore, when he wrote his will he left his estate to his nephew, or his nephew's family if his nephew died before Smithson. If his nephew was to die without a family, Smithson's will stipulated that he would donate his estate to the founding of an educational institution in Washington, D.C., in the United States. His nephew died and could not claim to be the recipient of his estate; therefore, Smithson became the founding donor of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. He never visited the United States.
James Smithson was born on 31 March, 1765 (31.march@dr.apis.science.leaflet ) to Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland and Elizabeth Hungerford Keate Macie.[2] His mother was the widow of James Macie, a wealthy man from Weston, Bath.[3] An illegitimate child, Smithson was born in secret in Paris, making his exact birth date a mystery. His birth name was James Lewis Macie, and after the death of his parents he changed his last name to Smithson in 1801.[2][4] He was educated and eventually naturalized in England.[3] In 1766, his mother inherited Hungerfords of Studley, where her brother had lived up until his death.[5] Smithson enrolled at Pembroke College, Oxford in 1782 and graduated in 1786, later taking his MA.[6][7]
Smithson was nomadic in his lifestyle, traveling throughout Europe.[2] As a student, in 1784, he participated in a geological expedition with Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond, William Thornton and Paolo Andreani of Scotland and the Hebrides.[8] He was in Paris during the French Revolution.[2] In August 1807 Smithson became a prisoner of war while in Tönning during the Napoleonic Wars. He arranged a transfer to Hamburg, where he was again imprisoned, now by the French. The following year, Smithson wrote to Sir Joseph Banks and asked him to use his influence to help free Smithson. Banks succeeded and Smithson returned to England.[9] He never married or had children.[2] Smithson's wealth stemmed from the splitting of his mother's estate with his half-brother, Col. Henry Louis Dickinson.[5]
Scientific work:
Smithson's research work was eclectic. He studied subjects ranging from coffee making to the use of calamine in making brass, which would eventually be called smithsonite. He also studied the chemistry of human tears, snake venom and other natural occurrences. Smithson would publish twenty-seven papers.[2] He was nominated to the Royal Society of London by Henry Cavendish and was made a fellow on April 26, 1787.[10] Smithson socialized and worked with scientists Joseph Priestley, Sir Joseph Banks, Antoine Lavoisier, and Richard Kirwan.[1]
His first paper was presented at the Royal Society on July 7, 1791, "An Account of Some Chemical Experiments on Tabasheer."[11] In 1802 he read his second paper, "A Chemical Analysis of Some Calamines," at the Royal Society. It was published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London and was the documented instance of his new name, James Smithson. In the paper, Smithson challenges the idea that the mineral calamine is an oxide of zinc. His discoveries made calamine a "true mineral."[12] He explored and examined Kirkdale Cave and published about his findings in 1824. His findings successfully challenged previous beliefs that the fossils within the formations at the cave were from the Great Flood.[13] Smithson is credited with first using the word "silicates".[1]
Later life and death:
Smithson died in Genoa, Italy on June 27, 1829.[2][14] He was buried in Sampierdarena in a Protestant cemetery.[14] In his will, Smithson left his fortune to his nephew, Henry James Hungerford.[5] In the will, which was written in 1826, Smithson stated that Hungerford or Hungerford's children would receive his inheritance, and if Hungerford did not live, and had no children to receive the fortune, he would donate it to the United States to have an educational institution called the Smithsonian Institution founded.[15] Hungerford died on June 5, 1835, unmarried and leaving behind no children, and the United States was the recipient.[15][16] In his will, Smithson explained the Smithsonian mission:
"I then bequeath the whole of my property, . . . to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men."[15]
Legacy and the Smithsonian:
It was not until 1835 that the United States government was informed about the bequest. Aaron Vail wrote to Secretary of State John Forsyth.[17] This information was then passed onto President Andrew Jackson who then informed Congress. A committee was organized and the Smithsonian Institution was founded.[18] Smithson's estate was sent to the United States, accompanied by Richard Rush. The estate arrived as gold sovereigns in eleven boxes.[19][20] Smithson's personal items, scientific notes, minerals, and library also traveled with Rush.[19] The gold was transferred to the treasury in Philadelphia and was reminted into $508,318.46.[20] The final funds from Smithson were received in 1864 from Marie de la Batut, Smithson's nephew's mother. This final amount totaled $54,165.38.[21]
On February 24, 1847, the Board of Regents, who oversaw the creation of the Smithsonian, approved the seal for the institution. The seal, based on an engraving by Pierre Joseph Tiolier, was manufactured by Edward Stabler and designed by Robert Dale Owen.[22] Smithson's papers and collection of minerals were destroyed in a fire in 1865, however, his collection of 213 books remain intact at the Smithsonian.[2][23][24] The Board of Regents acquired a portrait of Smithson, which shows Smithson dressed in Oxford University student attire. The painting, by James Roberts, is now on display in the crypt at the Smithsonian Castle.[25] An additional portrait, a miniature, and the original draft of Smithson's will were acquired in 1877, which now reside in the National Portrait Gallery and Smithsonian Institution Archives, respectively.[26] Additional items were acquired from Smithson's relatives in 1878.[27]
Relocation of Smithson's remains to Washington:
Smithson was buried just outside of Genoa, Italy. The United States consul in Genoa was asked to maintain the grave site, with sponsorship for its maintenance coming from the Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Secretary Samuel P. Langley visited the site, contributing further money to maintain it and requested a plaque be designed for the grave site. Three plaques were created by William Ordway Partridge. One was placed at the grave site, a second at a Protestant chapel in Genoa, and the last was gifted to Pembroke College, Oxford. Only one of the plaques exists today. The plaque at the grave site was stolen and then replaced with a marble version. During World War II, the Protestant chapel was destroyed and the plaque was looted. A copy was eventually placed at the site in 1963.[23] The grave site itself was going to be relocated in 1905, and in response, Alexander Graham Bell, who was a regent for the Smithsonian, requested that Smithson's remains be moved to the Smithsonian Institution Building. In 1903, Bell and his wife, Mabel Gardiner Hubbard, traveled to Genoa to exhume the body. The body set sail from Genoa on January 7, 1904 and arrived on January 20. On January 25, a ceremony was held and the body was escorted through Washington, D.C. by the United States Cavalry.[28] When handing over the remains to the Smithsonian, Bell stated:
"And now... my mission is ended and I deliver into your hands ... the remains of this great benefactor of the United States.”[28]
The coffin then lay in state in the Board of Regents' room, where objects from Smithson's personal collection were on display.[28]
Memorial:
After the arrival of Smithson's remains, the Board of Regents asked Congress to fund a memorial. Artists and architects were solicited to create proposals for the monument. Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Louis Saint-Gaudens, Gutzon Borglum, Totten & Rogers, Henry Bacon, and Hornblower & Marshall were some of the many artists and architectural firms who submitted proposals. The proposals varied in design, from elaborate monumental tombs that, if built, would have been bigger than the Lincoln Memorial, to smaller monuments just outside the Smithsonian Castle. Congress decided not to fund the memorial. To accommodate the fact that the Smithsonian would have to fund the memorial, they used the design of Gutzon Borglum, which suggested a remodel of the south tower room of the Smithsonian Castle to house the memorial surrounded by four Corinthian columns and a vaulted ceiling. Instead of the tower room, a smaller room at the north entrance, which was a children's museum, would house an Italian-style sarcophagus.[29]
On December 8, 1904, the Italian crypt was shipped, in sixteen crates from Italy. It traveled on the same ship that the remains of Smithson traveled on. Architecture firm Hornblower & Marshall designed the mortuary chapel, which included marble laurel wreaths and a neo-classical design. Smithson was entombed on March 6, 1905. His casket, which had been held in the Regent's Room, was carried down the spiral staircase of the Castle and placed into the ground underneath the crypt. This chapel was to serve as a temporary space for Smithson's remains until Congress approved a larger memorial. However, that never happened, and the remains of Smithson still lie there today.[30]






References:
1. a b c Colquhoun, Kate (31 May 2007). "A very British pioneer". The Telepgrah. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
2. a b c d e f g h "James Smithson". Smithsonian History. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
3. a b Goode, George Brown (1897). Birth of James Smithson. New York: De Vinne Press. pp. 1, 9.
4. "James Macie Changes His Name to Smithson". Public Records Office, Great Britain. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
5. a b c Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C: De Vinne Press. p. 22.
6. "James Smithson Enrolls at Oxford". Record Unit 7000, Box 5. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
7. Goode, George Brown (1880). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. pp. 10–11.
8. Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. p. 10.
9. "Smithson Held as a Prisoner of War". James Smithson Collection, 1796-1951. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
10. Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. p. 11.
11. Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. p. 11.
12. Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: Di Vinne Press. pp. 12–13.
13. Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century.. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. pp. 13–14.
14. a b Rhees, William Jones (1901). The Smithsonian Institution: Documents Relative to Its Origin and History: 1835-1899, Vol. 1, 1835-1887. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 13.
15. a b c Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. pp. 19–21.
16. Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century.. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. p. 25.
17. Rhees, William Jones (1901). The Smithsonian Institution: Documents Relative to Its Origin and History: 1835-1899, Vol. 1, 1835-1887. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 8–9.
18. Rhees, William Jones (1901). The Smithsonian Institution: Documents Relative to Its Origin and History: 1835-1899, Vol. 1, 1835-1887. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 125.
19. a b Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. p. 30.
20. a b "Smithson's Legacy and Effects Arrive in NY". Chronology of Smithsonian History. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
21. Rhees, William Jones (1901). The Smithsonian Institution: Documents Relative to Its Origin and History: 1835-1899, Vol. 1, 1835-1887. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 116–117.
22. Rhees, William J. (1879). Journals of the Proceedings of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 1846-76, Reports of Committees, Statistics, Etc.. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. pp. 445–446.
23. a b Stamm, Richard E. "The Italian Grave Site". Mr. Smithson Goes to Washington And the Search for a Proper Memorial. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
24. "A Man of Science". From Smithson to Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
25. "Purchase of Smithson Portrait". Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
26. "Smithson Portrait and Papers Purchased". Record Unit 7000, Box 3, Folder 7. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
27. "Smithson Artifacts Obtained from de la Batut". Record Unit 7000, p. Box 3, Folder 7. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
28. a b c Stamm, Richard E. "The Exhumation and Journey to America". Mr. Smithson Goes to Washington. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
29. Stamm, Richard E. "The Search for a Proper Memorial". Mr. Smithson Goes to Washington. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
30. Stamm, Richard E. "Smithson's Crypt". Mr. Smithson Goes to Washington. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
31. "Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland". The Peerage. 27 January 2013.
32. A genealogical history of the dormant, abeyant, forfeited, and extinct peerages of the British empire, Sir Bernard Burke, Harrison, 1866.
33. 31.march@dr.apis.science.leaflet

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“Dr. APIS” SCIENCE SPECTRUM

Objective: To Establish the Repository of Contributions of Eminent Scholars and Information on Science and Culture For The Society. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Arthur W. Galston :
Scientist of the Day (21 April) ------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------


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(Birth: 20 April,1798) (Death: 22 June, 1875 )
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Arthur W. Galston (Birth: 21 April, 1920 ; Death: 15 June, 2008) was an American botanist and bioethicist who, as a graduate student at the University of Illinois, discovered the defoliant properties of a chemical that was subsequently studied and utilized by the United States Army. His research and 1943 Ph.D. dissertation were focused on finding a chemical means to make soybeansflower and fruit earlier. In the early 1950s, biological warfare scientists at Fort Detrick, Maryland, began investigating defoliants based upon Galston's discoveries eventually producing the controversial toxic defoliant Agent Orange which was used by the U. S. Air Force for defoliation in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War.
Galston's research and 1943 Ph.D. dissertation focused on finding a chemical means to make soybeansflower and fruit earlier. He discovered both that 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) would speed up the flowering of soybeans and that in higher concentrations it would defoliate the soybeans. He was drafted into the U.S. Navy as an enlisted man and ultimately served as Natural Resources officer in Naval Military Government on Okinawa until his discharge in 1946.
In 1951 biological warfare scientists at Fort Detrick, Maryland began investigating defoliants based upon Galston's discoveries with TIBA, eventually producing the toxic defoliant Agent Orange used by the U. S. Air Force for defoliation in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. During this time, Galston taught as an associate professor at the California Institute of Technology before moving to Yale University where he taught from 1955 onwards.
Beginning in 1965, Galston lobbied both his scientific colleagues and the government to stop using Agent Orange. Galston and U. S. geneticistMatthew S. Meselson appealed to the U. S. Department of Defense to investigate the human toxicology of Agent Orange.[4] The research conducted by the Department of Defense led to the discovery that Agent Orange caused birth defects in laboratory rats. In 1971 this information led to U. S. President Richard M. Nixon banning the use of the substance. Galston made numerous trips to Vietnam and China, including, with Ethan Signer of MIT, as the first American scientists invited to visit the People's Republic of China. In 1971, he met Chou En-lai, then Prime Minister, as well as King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia, who then resided in Shanghai.
After his retirement as a biologist in 1990, he became affiliated with Yale's Institution for Social & Policy Studies, where he helped to found the Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics. He also taught bioethics to Yale undergraduates. In 2003-2004 his introductory bioethics course attracted 460 students, making it one of the most popular courses in Yale College.
Galston authored more than 300 papers on plant physiology and co-edited two books on bioethics.
He also co-founded the Gray Is Green: The National Senior Conservation Corps, a non-profit organization dedicated to helping older Americans lead more sustainable lives.
Galston died on 15 June, 2008 in Hamden, Connecticut.
References:
1. Schneider, Brandon (Winter 2003). "Agent Orange: A deadly member of the rainbow". Retrieved 2008-07-12.
2. Galston, Arthur (March 2002). "An Accidental Plant Biologist". Plant Physiology. American Society of Plant Physiologists. pp. Vol. 128, pp. 786–787. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
3. "Arthur Galston". The Economist. June 28, 2008. p. 94. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
4. "Arthur Galston, Agent Orange Researcher, Is Dead at 88". New York Times. 2008-06-23.
2. Galston, Arthur W. (1972), "Science and Social Responsibility: A Case History", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences; 196:223.


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Each and Every Change Brings Opportunity for Fortified Development ……….
.Vitthalrao B. Khyade---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Acknowledgement: Vaishnavi Xerox helped for Collection of images in the Science Spectrum of 21 April, 2016. All the mistakes in the collection of information from website, it’s compilation and communication belongs exclusively to :
Vitthalrao B. Khyade.
Please do excuse for the mistakes. ----------------------------------------------------- Dr.APIS@World.of.Science.Information ---------------------------------------------------------------
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Research Group, A.D.T. And Shardabai Pawar Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Shardanagar, Malegaon(Baramati) Dist. Pune – 413115.



“Dr. APIS” SCIENCE SPECTRUM



Objective: To Establish the Repository of Contributions of Eminent Scholars and Information on Science and Culture For The Society. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

23 June : Birth Anniversary of Alfred Kinsey

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(Birth: 23 June,1894)

(Death: 25 August, 1956)

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Alfred Charles Kinsey (June 23, 1894 – August 25, 1956) was an American biologist, professor of entomology and zoology, and sexologist who in 1947 founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University,[1] now known as the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction. He is best known for writing Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953), also known as the Kinsey Reports, as well as the Kinsey scale. Kinsey's research on human sexuality, foundational to the field of sexology, provoked controversy in the 1940s and 1950s. His work has influenced social and cultural values in the United States, as well as internationally.

Kinsey was born on June 23, 1894, in Hoboken, New Jersey, the son of Sarah Ann (née Charles) and Alfred Seguine Kinsey.[2] Kinsey was the eldest of three children. His mother received little formal education; his father was a professor at Stevens Institute of Technology. Kinsey's parents were poor for most of his childhood, often unable to afford proper medical care. This may have led to a young Kinsey receiving inadequate treatment for a variety of diseases including rickets, rheumatic fever, and typhoid fever. His health records indicate that Kinsey received suboptimal exposure to sunlight (often the cause of rickets, before milk and other foods were fortified with vitamin D) and lived in unsanitary conditions for at least part of his childhood. Rickets led to a curvature of the spine, which resulted in a slight stoop that prevented Kinsey from being drafted in 1917 for World War I. Kinsey's parents were devout Christians. His father was known as one of the most devout members of the local Methodist church. Most of Kinsey's social interactions were with other members of the church, often as a silent observer, while his parents discussed religion.[3] Kinsey's father imposed strict rules on the household, including mandating Sunday as a day of prayer and little else.

At age 10, Kinsey moved with his family to South Orange, New Jersey.[2] Also at a young age, he showed great interest in nature and camping. He worked and camped with the local YMCA throughout his early years, and enjoyed these activities to such an extent that he intended to work professionally for the YMCA after completing his education. Kinsey's senior undergraduate thesis for psychology, a dissertation on the group dynamics of young boys, echoed this interest. He joined the Boy Scouts when a troop was formed in his community. His parents strongly supported this (and joined as well) because the Boy Scouts was an organization that was based on the principles of Christianity. Kinsey worked his way up through the Scouting ranks to earn Eagle Scout in 1913, making him one of the earliest Eagle Scouts.[4] Despite earlier disease having weakened his heart, Kinsey followed an intense sequence of difficult hikes and camping expeditions throughout his early life.

In high school, Kinsey was a quiet but hard-working student. While attending Columbia High School, he devoted his energy to academic work and playing the piano. At one time, Kinsey had hoped to become a concert pianist, but decided to concentrate on his scientific pursuits instead. Kinsey's ability to spend immense amounts of time deeply focused on study was a trait that would serve him well in college and during his professional career. He seems not to have formed strong social relationships during high school, but earned respect for his academic ability. While there, Kinsey became interested in biology, botany and zoology. Kinsey was later to claim that his high school biology teacher, Natalie Roeth, was the most important influence on his decision to become a scientist. Kinsey approached his father with plans to study botany at college. His father demanded that he study engineering at Stevens Institute of Technology instead. Kinsey was unhappy at Stevens, and later remarked that his time there was one of the most wasteful periods of his life.

Regardless, he resumed his commitment to study. At Stevens, he primarily took courses related to English and engineering, but was unable to satisfy his interest in biology. At the end of two years at Stevens, Kinsey gathered the courage to confront his father about his interest in biology and his intent to continue studying at Bowdoin College in Maine.

In the fall of 1914, Kinsey entered Bowdoin College, where he studied entomology under Manton Copeland, and was admitted to the Zeta Psi fraternity, in whose house he lived for much of his time at college.[5][6] In 1916 Kinsey was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa society and graduated magna cum laude, with degrees in biology and psychology.[7] Alfred Seguine didn't attend his son's graduation ceremony from Bowdoin, possibly as another sign of disapproval of his son's choice of career and studies. He continued his graduate studies at Harvard University's Bussey Institute, which had one of the most highly regarded biology programs in the United States. It was there that Kinsey studied applied biology under William Morton Wheeler, a scientist who made outstanding contributions to entomology. Under Wheeler, Kinsey worked almost completely autonomously, which suited both men quite well.

Kinsey chose to do his doctoral thesis on gall wasps, and began zealously collecting samples of the species. He traveled widely and took 26 detailed measurements of hundreds of thousands of gall wasps; his methodology was itself an important contribution to entomology as a science. Kinsey was granted a Sc.D. degree in 1919 by Harvard University, and published several papers in 1920 under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, introducing the gall wasp to the scientific community and describing its phylogeny. Of the more than 18 million insects in the museum's collection, some 5 million are gall wasps collected by Kinsey.[8]

Kinsey wrote a widely used high-school textbook, An Introduction to Biology, which was published in October 1926.[9] The book endorsed evolution and unified, at the introductory level, the previously separate fields of zoology and botany.[10] [11] Kinsey also co-wrote Edible Wild Plants of Eastern North America with Merritt Lyndon Fernald, published in 1943. The original draft of the book was written in 1919–1920, while Kinsey was still a doctoral student at the Bussey Institute and Fernald was working at the Arnold Arboretum.[12]

Kinsey died on August 25, 1956, at the age of 62. The cause of death was reported to be a heart ailment and pneumonia.



References:

1. "Origin of the Institute". The Kinsey Institute. Retrieved 2010-03-30.

2. b "American Experience | Kinsey | Timeline". PBS. Retrieved 2014-04-15.

3. "American Experience | Kinsey | People & Events". PBS. Retrieved 2013-12-04.

4. "Alfred Charles Kinsey (1894-1956)". American Experience: Kinsey. PBS. Archived from the original on 21 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-09.

5. Weinberg, Martin S. (1976). Sex Research: Studies from the Kinsey Institute. Oxford University Press. p. 25.

6. Gathorne-Hardy, Jonathan (2000). Sex, the Measure of All Things: A Life of Alfred C. Kinsey. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 37–38. ISBN 0-253-33734-8.

7. Christenson, Cornelia V. (1971). Kinsey: A Biography. Bloomington/London: Indiana University Press. p. 29.

8. Yudell, Michael (July 1, 1999). "Kinsey's Other Report". Natural History 108 (6). ISSN 0028-0712.

9. Christenson, Cornelia V. (1971). Kinsey, A Biography. Indiana University Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-253-14625-9.

10. Kinsey, Alfred Charles (1927). William Fletcher Russell, ed. An Introduction to Biology. Lippincott.

11. "If Kinsey’s Textbook Could Talk …". Textbook History. 2010-03-28. Retrieved 2013-12-04.

12. Del Tredici, Peter. "The Other Kinsey Report." Natural History, ISSN 0028-0712, July 1, 2006, vol. 115, issue 6.

13. Look Both Ways: Bisexual Politics - Jennifer Baumgardner - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-12-04.

14. Insatiable Wives: Women Who Stray and the Men Who Love Them - David J. Ley - Google Books. Books.google.com. 2009-12-16. Retrieved 2013-12-04.

------------------------------------------------------------------------KINSEY'S WORK ON GALL-MAKING WASPS



During the period immediately following his work at Harvard University,

Kinsey traveled widely in the United States on a Sheldon Traveling Fellowship,

gathering much of the material on which he later based a major revision of the

genus Cynips. Later, during his tenure at Indiana University, he made field trips

to Mexico and Central America, usually accompanied by students. (One small

insight into Kinsey's character comes from one of these later trips when Kinsey

sent a student home for refusing to take a cold shower in the morning.) Kinsey,

in his work on gall wasps, defined species as populations with a common heritage.

He maintained that they were not merely mental concepts but realities which

preserve a morphological and physiological identity under varying conditions

over vast geographical areas. Species populations contain variations, mutations,

and Mendelian races which may be, if isolated, the source of new species. Hybrid

populations, although they occur, do not seem to have formed new species in

Cynips. These conclusions were derived from the morphology, biometry, host

relationships, life cycles, and geographic distribution of Cynips. Kinsey

generally rejected what he called the Darwinian interpretation of the origin of

new species through the accumulation of small variations. He also asserted that

although species populations may show variation in some characters, large series

will show great uniformity of characters. Much mystifying variation might be

eliminated if larger series were used. There might also be uniformity in variation.

Kinsey maintained that the higher categories were realities and not simply mental

concepts convenient for sorting organisms. He felt that his work on gall wasps

showed the reality of the higher categories. He summarized his thinking concerning

higher categories and the taxonomic method somewhat as follows (1936):

1. Higher categories represent the ancestral stocks from which lower categories (the present day species) have been derived.

2. The ancestral stocks which gave rise to the higher categories were originally single species.

3. The higher category is of more ancient origin (in time) than any lower category.

4. The ancestral stocks representing the higher categories are for the most part extinct; only the products of evolution are available today.

5. Multiplication of species may be accomplished through isolation of portions of an older species and independent mutation and hybridization within each such isolated portion.

6. The higher categories are realities in nature; they were once real species.

7. Evolution has been radiate not linear.

8. The best representation of evolution, therefore, is of a "tree of life" in which the trunk represents ancestral stocks out of which the branches (lower categories) evolved.

9. The number and magnitude of characteristics common to any category depends on the age of the category.

10. Categorical rank is to be determined by the nature of the particular character involved.

11. Reproductive organs (primary or more often secondary) are more conservative than other characters and, therefore, have greater significance in establishing higher categories.\

12. The adaptive nature of a character determines the categorical rank of the unit in which the character is found.

13. The capacity of two groups to hybridize is inversely related to the categorical rank.





Ready Source of Information:

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All the mistakes in the collection of information from website, it’s compilation and communication ( through email ) belongs exclusively to : Vitthalrao B. Khyade (And not to his pace making Shardanagar).