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Bentham, Jeremy. The Works of Jeremy Bentham. Vol. 1. Edited by John Bowring. 1838–1843. Reprint, New York: Russell and Russell, 1962.

Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de. Sketch of a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind. Translated by June Barraclough with an introduction by Stuart Hampshire. New York: Noonday Press, 1955.

Constant, Benjamin. "The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with That of the Moderns." 1819. In Political Writings, edited and translated by Biancamaria Fontana. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Grotius, Hugo. The Law of War and Peace. 1625. Translated by Francis W. Kelsey. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1962.

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. Elements of the Philosophy of Right. 1821. Edited by Allen W. Wood and translated by H. B. Nisbet. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. 1651. Reprint, edited by Richard Tuck, Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Kant, Immanuel. The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. 1785. Edited by Thomas E. Hill Jr. and Arnulf Zweig and translated by Arnulf Zweig. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

——. The Metaphysical Elements of Justice. 1797. Translated by John Ladd. Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965.

Locke, John. "A Letter concerning Toleration." 1689. Reprint, in John Locke: "A Letter concerning Toleration," in Focus, edited by John Horton and Susan Mendus. London: Routledge, 1991.

——. Two Treatises of Government. 1690. Reprint, edited with an introduction and notes by Peter Laslett, Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. 1859. Reprint, edited by Gertrude Himmelfarb, New York: Penguin, 1982.

Paine, Thomas. The Rights of Man, Common Sense and Other Political Writings, edited with an introduction and notes by Mark Philp. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Pufendorf, Samuel. On the Duty of Man and Citizen According to Natural Law. 1673 Edited by James Tully and translated by Michael Silverthorne. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Rawls, John. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

——. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 1971.

Ricardo, David. The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, with an introduction by Donald Winch. London: Dent, 1973.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. "The Social Contract" and Other Later Political Writings. Edited and translated by Victor Gourevitch. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. 1776. Reprint, edited by R. H. Campbell, A. S. Skinner, and W. B. Todd, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976.

Spinoza, Benedictus de. Tractatus theologico-politicus. 1670. In The Political Works, edited and translated by A. G. Wernham. Reprint, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958.


Arblaster, Anthony. The Rise and Decline of Western Liberalism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1984.

Barry, Brian. Culture and Equality: An Egalitarian Critique of Multiculturalism. Cambridge, U.K.: Polity Press, 2001.

de Ruggiero, Guido. The History of European Liberalism. Translated by R. G. Collingwood. 1927. Reprint, Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1981.

Freeden, Michael. The New Liberalism: An Ideology of Social Reform. Oxford: Clarendon, 1978.

Girvetz, Harry K. The Evolution of Liberalism. New York: Collier, 1963.

Grampp, William D. Economic Liberalism. New York: Random House, 1965.

Gray, John. Liberalism. 2nd ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995.

Hobhouse, L. T. "Liberalism" and Other Writings. Edited by James Meadowcroft. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Kymlicka, Will, ed. The Rights of Minority Cultures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Laski, Harold J. The Rise of European Liberalism. 1936. Reprint, with a new introduction by John Stanley. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1997.

Miller, David. On Nationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Phillips, Anne, ed. Feminism and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Tamir, Yael. Liberal Nationalism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Weedon, Chris. Feminism, Theory, and the Politics of Difference. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999.

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Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Laser - Background And History to Linear equationLiberalism - Liberal Practice, Liberal Theories, The Historical Development Of The Liberal Idea, Some Issues In Liberal Theory And Practice