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Arrian. The Campaigns of Alexander. London: Penguin, 1976.

Bible, The. The life of David, in I and II Samuel; Jesus, in Matthew; and Paul, in Acts. Various editions, including the Revised Standard Edition.

Confucius. The Analects. Translated by Arthur Waley. New York: Vintage, 1989.

Dante. The Divine Comedy. Translated by John Ciardi. New York: Norton, 1977. Significant for its portrayal of the full range of human triumphs and foibles.

Lao Tzu. The Tao Te Ching. Translated by Stephen Mitchell. New York: Perennial, 1992.

Machiavelli, Niccolò. The Prince. Translated by George Bull. New York: Bantam, 1984. One of the most enduring and significant leadership manuals, with some fifty editions currently in print.

Plato. The Republic. New York: Oxford University Press, 1951.

Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Shakespeare's plays offer insight into the human condition and human motivations, a deep understanding of which is required for leadership. Hamlet, in particular, gives humanity a terrifying look inside itself.

——. Othello. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Offers a view of how a leader is undone by an evil lieutenant.

Sophocles. Antigone. Translated by Richard Emil Braun. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Notable for its display of the pitfalls of rigidity in a leader.

Sun Tzu. The Art of War. Translated by Ralph D. Sawyer. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1994.


Bennis, Warren. On Becoming a Leader. Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley, 1989.

Carlyle, Thomas. On Heroes, Hero Worship, and the Heroic in History. New York: Ginn and Co., 1902. Notable for its theory of leadership in contrast to that of Tolstoy.

Drucker, Peter. The Essential Drucker: Selections from the Management Works of Peter F. Drucker. New York: HarperBusiness, 2001. A significant modern leadership book.

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. The Change Masters: Innovations for Productivity in the American Corporation. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983.

——. When Giants Learn to Dance: Mastering the Challenge of Strategy, Management, and Careers in the 1990s. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989.

McGregor, Douglas. The Human Side of Enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960.

O'Toole, James. Leading Change: The Argument for Values-Based Leadership. New York: Ballantine, 1996.

Tolstoy, Leo. War and Peace. Translated by Louise and Aylmer Maude. New York: Oxford University Press, 1931. Of interest for its theory of leadership, in contrast to that of Carlyle.

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Laser - Background And History to Linear equationLeadership - Leadership In Historical Context, History's Slaves Or History's Masters?, Leadership As A Skill