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Galen. A Translation of Galen's Hygiene (De sanitate tuenda). Translated by Robert Montraville Greene. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1951.

Richardson, Benjamin Ward. Hygeia: A City of Health. London: Macmillan, 1876.


Armstrong, David. "Public Health Spaces and the Fabrication of Identity." Sociology 27 (1993): 393–403.

Bashford, Alison. Imperial Hygiene: A Critical History of Colonialism, Nationalism, and Public Health. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Hamarneh, Sami Khalaf. Health Sciences in Early Islam: Collected Papers. San Antonio, Tex.: Zahra, 1983.

Mikkeli, Heikki. Hygiene in the Early Modern Medical Tradition. Helsinki: Finnish Academy of Science and Letters, 1999.

Proctor, Robert. Racial Hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Tomes, Nancy. The Gospel of Germs: Men, Women, and the Microbe in American Life. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Vigarello, Georges. Concepts of Cleanliness: Changing Attitudes in France since the Middle Ages. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Wear, Andrew. "History of Personal Hygiene." In The Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine, edited by William F. Bynum and Roy Porter. Vol. 2. London and New York: Routledge, 1993.

Yamamoto Shun Ichi. "Introduction of the Western Concept and Practice of Hygiene to Japan during the Nineteenth Century." In The History of Hygiene: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine, East and West, edited by Yosio Kawakita, Shizu Sakai, and Yasuo Otsuka. Susono-shi, Shizuoka, Japan: Ishiyabe EuroAmerica Inc., 1987.

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Hydrazones to IncompatibilityHygiene - The Ancient World, C. 500 B.c.e. –200 C.e.