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China Examination Systems


Chaffee, John W. The Thorny Gates of Learning in Sung China. New ed. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995.

Des Rotours, Robert. Le traité des examens, traduit de la Nouvelle histoire des T'ang. Paris: Leroux, 1932.

Elman, Benjamin. A Cultural History of Civil Examinations in Late Imperial China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Herbert, P. A. Examine the Honest, Appraise the Able: Contemporary Assessments of Civil Service Selection in Early T'ang China. Canberra: Australian National University, 1988.

Ho, Ping-ti. The Ladder of Success in Imperial China. New York: Wiley, 1962.

Kracke, E. A. Civil Service in Early Sung China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968.

Lo, Winston W. An Introduction to the Civil Service of Sung China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1987.

Miyazaki, Ichisada. China's Examination Hell. Translated by Conrad Schirokauer. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1981.

Twitchett, Denis. The Birth of the Chinese Meritocracy: Bureaucrats and Examinations in T'ang China. London: China Society, 1976.

Wittfogel, Karl. "Public Office in the Liao Dynasty and the Chinese Examination System." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 10 (1947): 13–40.

Zi, Etienne. Pratique des examens litteraires en Chine. Shanghai: Mission Catholique, 1894. Reprint, Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus, 1975.

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Evolution to FerrocyanideChina Examination Systems - Power, Politics, And Examinations, Literacy And Social Dimensions, Fields Of Learning, Delegitimation And Decanonization