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History, Requirements For Life, Evolution Of The Biosphere, Current Research

The biosphere is the space on and near the earth's surface that contains and supports living organisms and ecosystems. It is typically subdivided into the lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. The lithosphere is the earth's surrounding layer composed of solid soil and rock, the atmosphere is the surrounding gaseous envelope, and the hydrosphere refers to liquid environments such as lakes and oceans, occurring between the lithosphere and atmosphere. The biosphere's creation and continuous evolution result from physical, chemical, and biological processes. To study these processes a multi-disciplinary effort has been employed by scientists from such fields as chemistry, biology, geology, and ecology.

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