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Braudel, Fernand. Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century. Translated by Siân Reynolds. 3 vols. New York: Harper, 1982–1984.

Polybius. The Histories of Polybius. Translated from the text of Friedrich Hultsch by Evelyn S. Shuckburgh. 2 vols. London and New York: Macmillan, 1889.

Spengler, Oswald. The Decline of the West. Authorized translation with notes by Charles Francis Atkinson. London: Allen and Unwin, 1980.

Toynbee, Arnold. A Study of History. 12 vols. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1934–1961.

Vico, Giambattista. The New Science of Giambattista Vico. Translated by Thomas Goddard Bergin and Max Harold Fisch. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1984.

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Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Cyanohydrins to Departments of philosophy:Cycles - The Ancient World, The Early Modern Period, The Twentieth Century, Bibliography