Barbarism and Civilization
Arrian. History of Alexander and Indica. Vol. 1. Translated by P. A. Brunt. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976.
Braudel, Fernand. A History of Civilizations. Translated by Richard Mayne. New York: Penguin Books, 1995.
Bury, J. B. The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2000. First published in 1928.
Caesar, Julius. The Conquest of Gaul. Translated by S. A. Handford. London: Penguin Books, 1951.
Curtin, Jeremiah. The Mongols: A History. Boston: Little, Brown, 1908. Reprint, Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2003.
Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Engels, Friedrich. The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State. Edited by Eleanor Burke Leacock. Translated by Alec West. New York: International Publishers, 1972.
Gernet, Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization. 2nd ed. Translated by J. R. Foster and Charles Hartman. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Goulding, Jay. "'Three Teachings Are One': The Ethical Intertwinings of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism." In The Examined Life—Chinese Perspectives: Essays on Chinese Ethical Traditions, edited by Xinyan Jiang. Binghamton, N.Y.: Global Academic Publishing, Binghamton University, 2002.
Harrison, Thomas. "General Introduction." In Greeks and Barbarians, edited by Thomas Harrison. London: Routledge, 2002.
Herodotus. The History. Translated by David Grene. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Edited by Samuel H. Beer. Northbrook, Ill.: AHM Publishing, 1955.
Morgan, David. The Mongols. Oxford, and New York: Blackwell, 1986.
Morgan, Lewis Henry. Ancient Society. New York: Henry Holt, 1878. Reprint, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1985.
Naquin, Susan, and Evelyn S. Rawski. Chinese Society in the Eighteenth Century. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1987.
Nicolle, David. The Age of Tamerlane. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1990.
Redfield, James, "Herodotus the Tourist." In Greeks and Barbarians, edited by Thomas Harrison. London: Routledge, 2002.
Smith, Richard J. China's Cultural Heritage: The Qing Dynasty, 1644–1912. 2nd ed. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1994.
Toynbee, Arnold J. A Study of History. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1935.
——. A Study of History. Vol. 6. London: Oxford University Press, 1939.
——. A Study of History. Vol. 12: Reconsiderations. London: Oxford University Press, 1960.
Wilkinson, Endymion. Chinese History: A Manual. Rev. and enlarged. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center, 2000.
Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Ballistic galvanometer to Big–bang theoryBarbarism and Civilization - Friedrich Engels: Barbarism And Civilization, Herodotus And The Barbarians, Toynbee's Rhythm Of History