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Ancient PhilosophySocrates, Plato, Aristotle, Hellenistic Theories, Bibliography

Ancient Greek moral theories are concerned in the first instance with the good life for human beings, or, in a word, happiness—what it is and how we might attain it—and with the role of the virtues of character—for example, temperance, courage, and especially justice—in achieving it. Serious critical inquiry into these questions began in Athens in the fifth century B.C.E. with Socrates (469–399), peaked twice in the theories of Plato (427?–347) and Aristotle (384–322), and came to rest in the Hellenistic period (323–30) with the calmer and more austere theories of the Epicureans and Stoics.

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Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Philosophy of Mind - Early Ideas to Planck length