The fundus is the lining inside the eye which includes the retina and its blood vessels, the macula, and the optic disc. Viewed through an ophthalmoscope—a special instrument for examining the interior of the eye—the fundus appears a reddish brown in color, the macula in the center of the retina appears as a darker red spot, and the optic disc located toward the nose side of center a lighter red. Many general health and vision-related abnormalities can be detected by examining the fundus. Congenital myopia appears as a pale crescent moon in the vicinity of the optic disc, while cloudy nerve fibers—which should be the same color as the retina—appear as a whitish patch. Both these conditions are harmless. Others, however, are not.
Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Verbena Family (Verbenaceae) - Tropical Hardwoods In The Verbena Family to WelfarismVision Disorders - Refractive Errors, Hyperopia/presbyopia, Other Refractive Errors, Strabismus, Nonparalytic Strabismus, Paralytic Strabismus - Myopia, Astigmatism, Glaucoma, Secondary glaucomas, Degeneration of the macula, Retinal dystrophies