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Verbena Family (Verbenaceae)

North American Species

A number of species of wildflowers in the verbena family occur naturally in North America, or have been introduced from elsewhere and have spread to natural habitats.

One of the more familiar native species of verbenas in North America is the blue vervain or wild hyssop (Verbena hastata), a common plant of moist, temperate habitats. The French or Bermuda mulberry (Callicarpa americana) is a native shrub of moist thickets in southern parts of North America.

The European vervain or berbine (Verbena officinalis) is a common, introduced species in North America, and is sometimes an important weed.



Hartmann, H.T., A.M. Kofranek, V.E. Rubatzky, and W.J. Flocker. Plant Science. Growth, Development, and Utilization of Cultivated Plants. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988.

Woodland, D.W. Contemporary Plant. Heigh Systematics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991.

Bill Freedman


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—A grouping or arrangement of florets or flowers into a composite structure.

Tropical hardwood

—A generic term for a wide variety of species of tropical, angiosperm trees. Tropical hardwoods have a heavy, dense wood that is valuable for the manufacturing of lumber, or composite materials such as plywood. Mahogany and teak are among the most prized of the tropical hardwoods.


—A composite wood product, in which a thin outer covering of a valuable wood is glued onto an interior of less expensive wood.


—Any plant that is growing abundantly in a place where humans do not want it to be.

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Verbena Family (Verbenaceae) - Tropical Hardwoods In The Verbena Family to WelfarismVerbena Family (Verbenaceae) - Tropical Hardwoods In The Verbena Family, Ornamental Species, North American Species