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Vegetables Derived From Below-ground Tissues

The carrot (Daucus carota) is a biennial plant native to Eurasia. The carrot grows a large, starchy, cone-shaped tap-root during its first year of growth. As in many biennials, the large root is intended to support the great metabolic demands of the development of the flowering structure during the second and final year of the life of the plant. In carrots, the root develops a rich, orange color because of the presence of large concentrations of the pigment carotene, a precursor of vitamin A when eaten and metabolized by animals. Carrots are eaten raw or cooked. In North America and elsewhere, Queen Anne's lace is a weedy variety of carrots that has escaped from cultivation and is a common plant of disturbed places.

The parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) is another biennial plant, native to Europe. This plant is also cultivated for its conical tap-root which is usually eaten cooked.

The beet (Beta vulgaris) is another biennial plant that is grown for its large root. The beet root develops an intensely red-purple color due to the presence of large concentrations of anthocyanin pigments. Beet root is served cooked or is pickled in vinegar. The foliage of this plant is sometimes served as a steamed, leafy vegetable.

The radish (Raphanus sativus) is an annual plant that develops a large, below-ground storage organ which is anatomically a hypocotyl (the tissue between the true stem and the root). Radishes are red-colored on the outside and white inside. A biennial cultivar of the radish develops a large root which can be red, white, or brown colored. Radishes have a pungent flavor due to the presence of mustard oils and are usually served raw.

The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a perennial relative of the sunflower, native to North America. This plant produces tubers on its below-ground stems which are cooked and eaten.

The onion (Allium cepa) is a member of the lily family. The below-ground bulbs of this plant are served cooked or raw in salads. The garlic (A. sativum) also develops a strong-tasting bulb which is served raw or cooked and is mostly used as a flavoring.

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Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Two-envelope paradox to VenusVegetables - Vegetables Derived From Stems, Petioles, Or Foliage, Vegetables Derived From Fruits Or Flowers, Vegetables Derived From Below-ground Tissues - Eat your vegetables