Vegetables Derived From Stems, Petioles, Or Foliage
The cabbage is a species of mustard, originally native to Eurasia. Various agricultural varieties of the cabbage (Brassica oleracea) have been developed and are eaten cooked or sometimes raw. The familiar head and savoy cabbages are modifications of the leafy, pre-flowering rosette of the original mustard and can be green or a rich-red color. These cabbages are sometimes served raw, for example, finely chopped and dressed with oil and mayonnaise as coleslaw. Alternatively, these cabbages may be cooked and perhaps used as wrappers of cabbage rolls. Cabbage may also be slightly fermented and pickled, a food known as sauerkraut. Brussels sprouts are small, leafy rosettes that develop abundantly on an upright stem of another variety of cabbage and are served cooked.
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is another head-forming, leafy vegetable, native to southern Europe and usually served raw in salads. Endive (Cichorium endivia) is a similar related species that is also served raw as a salad green.
The celery (Apium graveolens) develops thick, fleshy, light-green petioles which are eaten raw or cooked. Rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum) also develops tart, nutritious petioles which are cooked, sweetened with sugar or fruit, and eaten. The leaves of this species are poisonous.
The dark-green leaves of spinach (Spinacea oleracea) are an iron-rich vegetable, served steamed or raw.
The young shoots of the asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) are collected in the early springtime and are cooked as a tasty vegetable.
The ostrich fern (Matteucia struthiopteris) is a species of North America. This plant is not normally cultivated, but it can develop prolific stands in moist bottomlands where its young shoots, known as "fiddleheads," are collected in the early springtime. These are served as a steamed vegetable.
The leafy stem of the leek (Allium porrum) is served as a cooked vegetable. The foliage of chives (A. schoenoprasum) is usually served raw in salads or as a garnish to other cooked vegetables.
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