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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Causes And Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative Treatment, Prognosis

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), also known as hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) outside of the United States, is estimated to affect 3–9% of children, and afflicts boys more often than girls. Although difficult to assess in infancy and toddlerhood, signs of ADHD may begin to appear as early as age two or three, but the symptom picture changes as adolescence approaches. Many symptoms, particularly hyperactivity, diminish in early adulthood, but impulsivity and inattention problems remain with up to 50% of ADHD individuals throughout their adult life.

Children with ADHD have short attention spans, becoming easily bored or frustrated with tasks. Although they may be quite intelligent, their lack of focus frequently results in poor grades and difficulties in school. ADHD children act impulsively, taking action first and thinking later. They are constantly moving, running, climbing, squirming, and fidgeting, but often have trouble with gross and fine motor skills and, as a result, may be physically clumsy and awkward. Their clumsiness may extend to the social arena, where they are sometimes shunned due to their impulsive and intrusive behavior.

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