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South America


Peru covers an area of 496,225 sq. mi (1,285,216 sq. km), making it the largest of the Andean countries. Like Ecuador, it is split by the Andes mountain into two distinct sections. The eastern coastal region is mostly covered with mountains, and in many places the ocean borders on steep cliffs. In the northern part, however, there is a relatively flat region which is suitable for agriculture. In the east, the lowlands are mostly covered by the thick tropical rain forest of the Amazon basin. The southern part of the Andes in Peru contain many volcanoes, some of which are still active, and Lake Titicaca, which is shared by Bolivia. Lake Titicaca is famous among archaeologists for its ancient Incan and pre-Incan ruins. It is extraordinary that the many fortresses, palaces, and temples found there were built of stone, for no stone is found anywhere close by, and some of the blocks weigh more than 20 tons (18 tonnes). However, Lake Titicaca is also remarkable for itself, for of the large lakes with no ocean outlet, it is the highest in the world. It is 125 mi (200 km) at its largest length and 69 mi (110 km) at its largest breadth, which is not quite half as large as Lake Ontario; but it lies at an altitude of 12, 507 ft (3,812 m) above sea level.

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Adam Smith Biography to Spectroscopic binarySouth America - The Highlands And Plateaus, The Andes, The Amazon Basin, The Climate, Venezuela, Ecuador - The continent, The countries, Uruguay