Utilization rates and procurement polices are other methods used to promote the use of recycled material by industry. Utilization rates allow greater flexibility than minimum-content rules. The manufacturer is still required to use set amounts of recovered material in their manufacturing process, but they have more latitude in selecting how the material is used. For example, a manufacturer might use the material for its own products, or arrange to have the recovered material used elsewhere.
Procurement policies are mandates that require large government agencies, which have enormous purchasing power, to set aside some portion of their budget for the purchasing of recycled products. This helps to create more favorable economics for recycling. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that a certain proportion of its purchases, and also that of other federal agencies, involves such products as recycled paper, re-refined motor oil, and other items made from recycled materials. A disadvantage of affirmative procurement policies is that prices may be higher for recycled products, and there may be problems with the availability and quality of some goods.