Archeologists analyze metal artifacts to determine the sources of ores used to produce the artifacts, and to learn more about trade patterns and fabrication technologies. Metal analyses are also used to authenticate artifacts. Analytical techniques frequently used to determine elemental compositions include x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, and neutron activation analysis. Lead isotope analysis is the technique of choice for determining sources of ores containing copper, silver, and tin (all of which contain trace amounts of lead).
- Archaeometry - Obsidian Hydration Dating
- Archaeometry - Luminescence Dating
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