# Number Theory

## Prime And Composite Numbers, Fermat's Theorem, Gauss And Congruence, Fermat's Failed Prime Number FormulaFamous formulas in number theory, Famous problems in number theory

Number theory is the study of natural, or counting numbers, including **prime numbers**. Number theory is important because the simple sequence of counting numbers from one to **infinity** conceals many relationships beneath its surface.

Number theory is full of famous formulas that illustrate the relationships between whole numbers from 1 to infinity. Some of these formulas are very complicated, but the most famous ones are very simple, for example, the **theorem** by Fermat below that proves if a number is prime.

Number theory is an immensely rich area and it is defined by the important problems that it tries to solve. Sometimes a problem was considered solved, but years later the solution was found to be flawed. One important challenge in number theory has been trying to find a formula that will describe all the prime numbers. To date, that problem has not been solved. Two of the most famous problems in number theory involve Fermat.

## Additional topics

- Numeration Systems - Why Numeration Systems Exist, History, The Bases Of Numeration Systems, Base 2, Base 10 Or Decimal
- Number Theory - Prime And Composite Numbers
- Number Theory - Fermat's Theorem
- Number Theory - Gauss And Congruence
- Number Theory - Fermat's Failed Prime Number Formula
- Number Theory - Fermat's Last Theorem
- Number Theory - Current Applications
- Other Free Encyclopedias

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