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Nanofabrication Techniques

Nanoscale devices are made using a combination of different fabrication steps. First is the growth stage, in which layers of different semiconductor material are grown on a substrate, providing structure in one dimension. Second is the lithography/pattern transfer stage, in which a pattern is imposed on a uniform layer, giving structure in the second and third dimensions. Repetition of these two stages results in the production of very complex, three-dimensionally nanoscale semiconductor devices.

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