Current Research/future Developments
As in many other fields of psychology, research into underlying biological (physiological, genetic, hormonal) factors in mental phenomena is thriving. Studies concluded in the early and mid-1990s clearly show learning/memory mechanisms occur at synaptic connections—the site of information transfer between neurons. Dozens of different mutant learning/memory genes have already been identified which specifically block learning and/or short-term, amnesia-resistant, and long-term memory. Further studies will surely help uncover intricate mechanisms at the cellular and molecular level involved in learning and memory. Continual advances since the 1970s in brain-imaging techniques that allow non-intrusive visualization of the brain at work have contributed immensely to this area of research. Improvement in brain imaging techniques such as computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), development of new techniques, and neurobiological and genetic research will undoubtedly lead to exciting discoveries about the basis of memory and other mental functions in the brain.
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Lutz, J. Introduction to Learning and Memory. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks-Cole, 1994.
McGaugh, J.L., N.M. Weinberger, and G. Lynch, eds. Brain Organization and Memory: Cells, Systems and Circuits. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Morris, P.E., and M.E. Conway, eds. The Psychology of Memory. Vols. 1-3. New York: New York University Press, 1993.
Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Mathematics to Methanal trimerMemory - History, Theories Of Basic Memory Processes, Models Of Memory Operation, Three Information Processing Systems - Divisions of long-yerm memory