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History Of Magnetism, Origin Of Magnetism, Types Of Magnetism, Measurement Of Magnetic Field, Applications Of Magnetism

Magnetism is a force generated in matter by the motion of electrons within its atoms. Magnetism and electricity represent different aspects of the force of electromagnetism, which is one part of Nature's fundamental electroweak force. The region in space that is penetrated by the imaginary lines of magnetic force describes a magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field is determined by the number of lines of force per unit area of space. Magnetic fields are created on a large scale either by the passage of an electric current through magnetic metals or by magnetized materials called magnets. The elemental metals—iron, cobalt, nickel, and their solid solutions or alloys with related metallic elements—are typical materials that respond strongly to magnetic fields. Unlike the all-pervasive fundamental force field of gravity, the magnetic force field within a magnetized body, such as a bar magnet, is polarized—that is the field is strongest and of opposite signs at the two extremities or poles of the magnet.

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Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Macrofauna to Mathematics