While various countries were busy claiming rights to Antarctica, scientists were cooperating effectively on research as early as 1875. Twelve nations participated in the first International Polar Year in 1882 and 1883. While most of the research was done in the Arctic, one German station was located in the Antarctic region. A second International Polar Year occurred in 1932-33, followed by the International Geophysical Year (IGY) from July 1, 1957 to December 31, 1958. This time, all twelve nations conducted research in Antarctica and set up base camps in various locations, some of which are still used today. Topics of research included the pull of gravity, glaciology, meteorites, cosmic rays, the southern lights, dynamics of the sun, the passage of comets near the earth, and changes in the atmosphere. Several organizations have been formed and agreements have been signed since these cooperative research projects to ensure that political conflicts do not arise concerning research and use of Antarctica.
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