These systems use a pumping unit, conveyor pipes, and some form of sprinkler mechanism. Of all the irrigation systems, they most resemble natural rainfall. Some systems are fixed and use pipes laid on the ground with risers that have a sprinkling nozzle at the top that rotates 360 degrees. The size of the water droplets, the speed of rotation, and the evaporation rate are considerations in selecting sprinkler systems, since these all have an effect on the soil. An added use of sprinkler systems is that they can in some situations be used for frost protection.
Besides fixed systems, mobile sprinkling systems are in use in the United States and Great Britain. Portable systems use a pump at the water source to pump the water into a main line that is laid throughout the field. The sprinkler units are moved from field to field for irrigation of crops. Other mobile sprinkling systems use a device called a rain gun, which has a nozzle with a large diameter.
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