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Old World harriers include:

  • Spotted harrier (Circus assimilis). Found throughout most of Australia, and sometimes in Tasmania.
  • European marsh harrier (Circus ranivorus). Resident of northern Kenya, Uganda, eastern Zaire, and Angola.
  • Marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus). Resident of western Europe, central Asia, and Japan; winters in Africa and southern Asia.
  • Black harrier (Circus maurus). Resident of southern Africa.

Harriers in North America and their status are as follows:

  • Northern harrier (Circus cyaneus). Has disappeared from many of its former nesting areas. Decline attributed to loss of habitat and effects of pesticides. In 1970, 20% of the eggs examined were found to exhibit shell thinning. Today the population appears to be declining in parts of North America.

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Habit memory: to HeterodontHawks - Buteos, Accipiters, Kites, Harriers, Characteristics And Behavior, Hawks And Humans