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Liquefaction of Gases

Making A Gas Work Against Internal Forces

In some ways, the simplest method for liquefying a gas is simply to take advantage of the forces that operate between its own molecules. This can be done by forcing the gas to pass through a small nozzle or a porous plug. The change that takes place in the gas during this process depends on its original temperature. If that temperature is less than some fixed value, known as the inversion temperature, then the gas will always be cooled as it passes through the nozzle or plug.

In some cases, the cooling that occurs during this process may not be sufficient to cause liquefaction of the gas. However, the process can be repeated more than once. Each time, more energy is removed from the gas, its temperature falls further, and, eventually, it changes to a liquid. This kind of cascade effect can, in fact, be used with either of the last two methods of gas liquefaction.

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Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Formate to GastropodaLiquefaction of Gases - Critical Temperature And Pressure, Methods Of Liquefaction, Making A Gas Work Against An External Force