Types Of Dc Motor
DC motors are more common than we may think. A car may have as many as 20 DC motors to drive fans, seats, and windows. They come in three different types, classified according to the electrical circuit used. In the shunt motor, the armature and field windings are connected in parallel, and so the currents through each are relatively independent. The current through the field winding can be controlled with a field rheostat (variable resistor), thus allowing a wide variation in the motor speed over a large range of load conditions. This type of motor is used for driving machine tools or fans, which require a wide range of speeds.
In the series motor, the field winding is connected in series with the armature winding, resulting in a very high starting torque since both the armature current and field strength run at their maximum. However, once the armature starts to rotate, the counter EMF reduces the current in the circuit, thus reducing the field strength. The series motor is used where a large starting torque is required, such as in automobile starter motors, cranes, and hoists.
The compound motor is a combination of the series and shunt motors, having parallel and series field windings. This type of motor has a high starting torque and the ability to vary the speed and is used in situations requiring both these properties such as punch presses, conveyors and elevators.