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Clone and Cloning

The Ethics Of Cloning

Despite the benefits of cloning and its many promising avenues of research, certain ethical questions concerning the possible abuse of cloning have been raised. At the heart of these questions is the idea of humans tampering with life in a way that could harm society, either morally, or in a real physical sense. Despite these concerns, there is little doubt that cloning will continue to be used. Cloning of particular genes for research and production of medicines is usually not opposed, gene therapy is much more controversial, while cloning of human beings is nearly uniformly opposed. Human cloning was banned in most countries and even the use of human embryonic stem cells is being reviewed in many countries. On the other hand, cloning plants or animals will probably continue.

See also Transgenics.



Schaefer, Brian C. Gene Cloning and Analysis: Current Innovations. Norfolk: Horizon Press, 1997.

Wilmut, I., Kieth Campbell, and Colin Tudge. The Second Creation: Dolly and the Age of Biological Control. New York: Farrar Straus & Giroux, 2000.

Pence, Gregory C. Who's Afraid of Human Cloning? Landham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998..


Loi, Pasqualino, Grazyna Ptak, Barbara Barboni, Josef Fulka Jr., Pietro Cappai, and Michael Clinton, "Genetic Rescue of an Endangered Mammal by Cross-species Nuclear Transfer Using Post-mortem Somatic Cells." Nature Biotechnology (October 2001):962–964

Ogonuki, Narumi, et al. "Early Death of Mice Cloned from Somatic Cells." Nature Genetics (February 11, 2002):253-254

David Petechuk


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—Individual embryonic cells.

Cell cycle

—A cycle of growth and cellular reproduction that includes nuclear division (mitosis) and cell division (cytokinesis).


—The structures that carry genetic information in the form of DNA. Chromosomes are located within every cell and are responsible for directing the development and functioning of all the cells in the body.


—Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material in a cell.


—The earliest stage of animal development in the uterus before the animal is considered a fetus (which is usually the point at which the embryo takes on the basic physical form of its species).


—A discrete unit of inheritance, represented by a portion of DNA located on a chromosome. The gene is a code for the production of a specific kind of protein or RNA molecule, and therefore for a specific inherited characteristic.

Genetic engineering

—The manipulation of genetic material to produce specific results in an organism.


—The study of hereditary traits passed on through the genes.


—Characteristics passed on from parents to offspring.


—The offspring resulting from combination of two different varieties of plants.

Nucleus (plural nuclei)

—The part of the cell that contains most of its genetic material, including chromosomes and DNA.

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Chimaeras to ClusterClone and Cloning - History Of Cloning, The Cloning Process, Biopysical Problems Associated With Cloning, The Ethics Of Cloning