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Circulatory System

The Lymphatic System And The Circulatory System

The lymphatic system is an open transport system that works in conjunction with the circulatory system. Lymphatic vessels collect intercellular fluid (tissue fluid), kill foreign organisms, and return it to the circulatory system. The lymphatic system also prevents tissue fluid from accumulating in the tissue spaces. Lymph capillaries pick up the intercellular fluid, now called lymph, and carry it into larger and larger lymph vessels. Inside the lymph vessels, lymph passes through lymph nodes, where lymphocytes attack viruses and bacteria. The lymphatic system transports lymph to the large brachiocephalic veins below the collarbone where it is re-enters the circulatory system. Lymph moves through the lymphatic system by the squeezing action of nearby muscles, for there is no pump in this system. Lymph vessels are equipped with one-way valves that prevent backflow. The spleen, an organ of the lymphatic system, removes old blood cells, bacteria, and foreign particles from the blood.


Resources

Books

Berne, R.M., and M.N. Levy. Cardiovascular Physiology. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1992.

Guyton & Hall. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 10th ed. New York: W. B. Saunders Company, 2000.

Kapit, Wynn, and Lawrence M. Elson. The Anatomy Coloring Book. New York: Harper & Row, 1995.


Periodicals

Acierno, L.J., and T. Worrell. "Profiles in Cardiology: James Bryan Herrick." Clinical Cardiology no. 23 (2000): 230-232.

Fackelmann, K. A. "Immune Cell Triggers Attack on Plaque." Science News (October 22, 1994).

Vogel, Steven. "Nature's Pumps." American Scientist (September/October 1994).


Other

Two Hearts That Beat as One. Films for Humanities and Science, 1995. Videocassette.

Bernice Essenfeld

KEY TERMS

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Artery

—Vessel that transports blood away from the heart.

Atherosclerosis

—Abnormal narrowing of the arteries of the body that generally originates from the buildup of fatty plaque on the artery wall.

Atrium (plural: atria)

—One of two upper chambers of the heart. They are receiving units that hold blood to be pumped into the lower chambers, the ventricles.

Capillary

—The smallest blood vessel; it connects artery to vein.

Phloem

—Plant tissue that transports food.

Pulmonary route

—Circuit that transports blood to and from the lungs.

Systemic route

—Circuit that transports blood to and from all parts of the body except the lungs.

Vein

—Vessel that transports blood to the heart.

Ventricles

—The two lower chambers of the heart; also the main pumping chambers.

Xylem

—Plant tissue that transports water and minerals upward from the roots.

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Chimaeras to ClusterCirculatory System - Circulation In Vascular Plants, Circulation In Invertebrates, Human Circulatory System, The Lymphatic System And The Circulatory System