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Bulmer, Ralph. "Why Is the Cassowary Not a Bird? A Problem of Zoological Taxonomy among the Karam of the New Guinea Highlands." Man, n.s., 2 (1967): 5–25.

Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966.

Durkheim, Émile. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. Translated by Karen E. Fields. New York: Free Press, 1995. Originally published in 1912.

Evans-Pritchard, E. E. Nuer Religion. Oxford: Clarendon, 1956.

Frazer, J. G. Totemism and Exogamy: A Treatise on Certain Early Forms of Superstition and Society. 4 vols. London: Macmillan, 1910.

Freud, Sigmund. Totem and Taboo: Resemblances between the Psychic Lives of Savages and Neurotics. Translated by A. A. Brill. New York: Vintage, 1946. Originally published in 1913.

Goldenweiser, A. A. "Totemism: An Analytical Study." Journal of American Folk-lore 23 (1910): 179–293.

Leach, Edmund R. "Anthropological Aspects of Language: Animal Categories and Verbal Abuse." In his New Directions in the Study of Language, edited by Eric H. Lenneberg. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1964.

Lévi-Strauss, Claude. The Savage Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1966.

——. Totemism. Translated by Rodney Needham. Boston: Beacon Press. 1963.

Lowie, Robert. Primitive Society. New York: Boni and Liveright, 1920.

Malinowski, Bronislaw. Magic, Science and Religion and Other Essays. Boston: Beacon Press, 1948.

McLennan, John. "The Worship of Animals and Plants." Reprinted in his Studies in Ancient History. The Second Series: Comprising an Inquiry into the Origin of Exogamy. London and New York: Macmillan, 1896. Originally published in 1869–1870.

Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. Structure and Function in Primitive Society. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1952.

Smith, W. Robertson. The Religion of the Semites: The Fundamental Institutions. Reprint, New York: Schocken Books, 1972. Originally published in 1889.

Spencer, Baldwin, and F. J. Gillen. The Native Tribes of Central Australia. Reprint, New York: Dover, 1968. Originally published in 1899.

Tambiah, S. J. "Animals Are Good to Think and Good to Prohibit." Ethnology 8 (1969): 424–459.

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Thallophyta to ToxicologyTotems - Evolutionary Theories, Durkheim And Freud, Totem And Taboo., Critique And Elaboration, The Structural Study Of Totemism