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Baudelaire, Charles. Les Fleurs du Mal. Edited by James McGowan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

———. Les Fleurs du Mal: The Complete Text of The Flowers of Evil. Translated by Richard Howard. Brighton, U.K.: Harvester; Boston: D. R. Godine, 1982.

Brunetiere, Ferdinand. "Le Symbolisme Contemporaine." Revue des deux mondes (1 April 1891): 685–686.

Denis, Maurice. Theories, 1890–1910: Du symbolisme et de Gauguin vers un novel ordre classique. Paris: L. Rouart and J. Watelin, 1920.

Dorra, Henri, ed. Symbolist Art Theories: A Critical Anthology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Fouille, Alfred. "Les grandes conclusions de la psychologie contemporaine: la conscience et ses transformations." Revue des deux mondes 107, 1891.

Harrison, Charles, Paul Wood, and Jason Gaiger, eds. Art in Theory, 1815–1900: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1998.

Huret, Jules. Enquete sur l'evolution littéraire. Paris: G. Charpentier and E. Fasquelle, 1984.

Hustvelt, Asti. The Decadent Reader: Fiction, Fantasy, and Perversion from Fin-de Siècle France. New York: Zone, 1998.

Huysmans, Joris-Karl. Against Nature. Translated by Margaret Mauldon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Kahn, Gustave. "Response des Symbolistes." L'evenement (28 September 1886).

Mallarmé, Stéphane. Selected Poetry and Prose. Edited by Mary Ann Caws. New York: New Directions, 1982.

Mangravite, Andrew, ed. An Anthology of French Symbolist and Decadent Writing Based upon The Book of Masks by Rémy de Gourmont. London: Atlas, 1995.

Moréas, Jean. "Le Symbolisme. Manifeste de Jean Moréas." In Les premieres arms du Symbolisme. Paris: Leon Varnier, 1889.

Nordau, Max. Degeneration. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993. Translation of Entartung (1892).

Rimbaud, Arthur. Complete Work. Translated by Paul Schmidt. New York: Harper and Row, 1976.

Verlaine, Paul. One Hundred and One Poems by Paul Verlaine: A Bilingual Edition. Translated by Norman R. Shapiro. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.


Block, Jane. Les XX and Belgian Avant-Gardism, 1868–1894. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1984.

Bowlt, John E. The Silver Age: Russian Art of the Early Twentieth Century and the "World of Art" Group. Newtonville, Mass.: Oriental Research Partners, 1979.

Cooke, Peter. "French and European Perspectives." In Symbolism, Decadence, and the Fin de Siècle, edited by Patrick McGuinness, 122–143. Exeter, U.K.: University of Exeter Press, 2000.

Cordulack, Shelley Wood. Edvard Munch and the Physiology of Symbolism. London: Associated University Press, 2002.

Deak, Frantisek. Symbolist Theater: The Formation of an Avant-Garde. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

Debussy, Claude. Monsieur Croche et autres écrits. Edited by François Lesure. Paris: Gallimard, 1971.

Dellamora, Richard. Masculine Desire: The Sexual Politics of Victorian Aestheticism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.

Druick, Douglas W. et al. Odilon Redon: Prince of Dreams, 1840–1916. New York: Harry N. Abrams/Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1994.

Eisenman, Stephen F. Gauguin's Skirt. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.

Fulcher, Jane F., ed. Debussy and His World. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Hollier, Denis, ed. A New History of French Literature. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994. See especially pages 723–819.

Kearns, James. Symbolist Landscapes: The Place of Painting in the Poetry and Criticism of Mallarmé and His Circle. London: Modern Humanities Research Association, 1989.

Lacambre, Geneviève. Gustave Moreau: Between Epic and Dream. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1999.

Marlais, Michael. Conservative Echoes in Fin-de-Siècle Parisian Art Criticism. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992.

Mathieu, Pierre-Louis. The Symbolist Generation, 1870–1910. New York: Rizzoli, 1990.

Matthews, Patricia. Passionate Discontent: Creativity, Gender, and French Symbolist Art. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Peterson, Ronald E. A History of Russian Symbolism. Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1993.

Prettejohn, Elizabeth, ed. After the Pre-Raphaelites: Art and Aestheticism in Victorian England. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1999.

Psomiades, Kathy Alexis. Beauty's Body: Femininity and Representation in British Aestheticism. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1997.

Pyman, Avril. A History of Russian Symbolism. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Shaw, Jennifer L. Dream States: Puvis de Chavannes, Modernism, and the Fantasy of France. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2002.

Smith, Richard Cándida. Mallarmé's Children: Symbolism and the Renewal of Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

Weisenberger, Edward, ed. The Spiritual in Art: Abstract Painting 1890–1985. New York: Abbeville, 1986.

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Swim bladder (air bladder) to ThalliumSymbolism - Symbolism In French Literature, Symbolism And Music, Les Vingt And Belgian Symbolism, Russian Symbolism