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The Sophists



Diels, Herman, and Walther Kranz, eds. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, griechisch und deutsch. Berlin: Weidmann, 1951–1952.

Sprague, Rosamond Kent, ed. The Older Sophists: A Complete Translation by Several Hands of the Fragments in Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, edited by Diels-Kranz. With a New Edition of Antiphon and Euthydemus. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1972.


Farrar, Cynthia. The Origins of Democratic Thinking: The Invention of Politics in Classical Athens. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Grote, George. History of Greece. Vol. 8. London: J. Murray, 1846–1856.

Guthrie, W. K. C. The Sophists. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1971.

Havelock, Eric Alfred. The Liberal Temper in Greek Politics. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1957.

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. The Philosophy of History. Translated by J. Sibree. New York: Dover, 1956.

Jaeger, Werner. Paideia: The Ideals of Greek Culture. Vol. 1. Translated by Gilbert Highet. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1945.

Jarratt, Susan C. Rereading the Sophists: Classical Rhetoric Refigured. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1991.

Kerferd, G. B. The Sophistic Movement. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Popper, Karl Raimund. The Open Society and Its Enemies. Vol. 1, The Spell of Plato. 4th ed.; rev. ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1963.

Romilly, Jacqueline de. The Great Sophists in Periclean Athens. Translated by Janet Lloyd. Oxford: Clarendon; New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. Less scholarly, but helpful for understanding the Sophists' political significance.

Untersteiner, Mario. The Sophists. Translated by Kathleen Freeman. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1954.

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Adam Smith Biography to Spectroscopic binaryThe Sophists - Sophistic Speeches, Pedagogy, Doctrines, Historiography, Bibliography