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Cell, John W. The Highest Stage of White Supremacy: The Origins of Segregation in South Africa and the American South. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Fredrickson, George M. The Comparative Imagination: On the History of Racism, Nationalism, and Social Movements. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997.

Hamilton, Charles V., et al., eds. Beyond Racism: Race and Inequality in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States. Boulder, Colo., and London: Lynne Rienner, 2001.

Kirk, Joyce F. Making a Voice: African Resistance to Segregation in South Africa. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.

Lapping, Brian. Apartheid: A History. New York: George Braziller, 1987.

Marx, Anthony W. Making Race and Nation: A Comparison of South Africa, the United States, and Brazil. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Nascimento, Abdias do, and Elisa Larkin-Nascimento. Africans in Brazil: A Pan-African Perspective. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1992.

Smith, John David. When Did Southern Segregation Begin? New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2002.

Vaughan, Alden T. Roots of American Racism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Woodward, C. Vann. 1955. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. Reprint, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Jean-Paul Sartre Biography to Seminiferous tubulesSegregation - Segregation In The Americas, Segregation In Africa, Ideas Surrounding Segregation, Ideas Surrounding Segregation In Africa