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Aristotle. The Art of Rhetoric. Translated by John Henry Freese. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1975.

Augustine, Saint. On Christian Doctrine. In The Confessions; The City of God; On Christian Doctrine. Translated by J. F. Shaw. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1990.

Cicero, Marcus Tullius. De oratore. Translated by E. W. Sutton and H. Rackham. London: Loeb Classical Library, 1959.

——. Orator. Translated by H. M. Hubbell. London: Loeb Classical Library, 1952.

Fontanier, Pierre. Les figures du discours. 1818. Reprint, Paris: Flammarion, 1968.

Plato. Phaedrus, Gorgias. Translated by W. D. Woodhead. In The Collected Dialogues of Plato, Including the Letters, edited by Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns. New York: Pantheon, 1961.

Quintilian. Institutes of Oratory. Translated by H. E. Butler. 4 vols. London: Loeb Classical Library, 1963.

Ramus, Petrus. The Logike of the Moste Excellent Philosopher P. Ramus, Martyr. Translated by Roland MacIlmaine. 1574. Reprint, New York: Da Capo, 1969. Translation of Dialecticae partitiones.

Rhetorica ad Herennium. Translated by H. Caplan. London: Loeb Classical Library, 1954.


Booth, Wayne. The Rhetoric of Fiction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.

Burke, Kenneth. A Grammar of Motives. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1945.

De Man, Paul. Allegories of Reading: Figural Language in Rousseau, Nietzsche, Rilke, and Proust. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1979.

Fumaroli, Marc. L'âge de l'éloquence: Rhétorique et "res literaria" de la Renaissance au seuil de l'époque classique. Geneva: Droz, 1980.

Jakobson, Roman, and Morris Halle. Fundamentals of Language. 4th ed. The Hague: Mouton, 1980.

McKeon, Richard. Rhetoric: Essays in Invention and Discovery. Woodbridge, Conn.: Ox Bow Press, 1987.

Murphy, James. Rhetoric in the Middle Ages: A History of Rhetorical Theory from Saint Augustine to the Renaissance. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

Ong, Walter. Ramus: Method and the Decay of Dialogue. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1958.

Perelman, Chaïm, and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca. The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation. Translated by John Wilkinson and Purcell Weaver. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1969.

Richards, I. A. The Philosophy of Rhetoric. New York: Oxford University Press, 1936.

Ricoeur, Paul. The Rule of Metaphor: Multi-disciplinary Studies of the Creation of Meaning in Language. Translated by Robert Czerny, with Kathleen McLaughlin and John Costello. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1977.

Sloane, Thomas O., ed. Encyclopedia of Rhetoric. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. This is a rich source of references from specialists too numerous to name here.

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Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Revaluation of values: to Sarin Gas - History And Global Production Of SarinRhetoric - Universality, The Art Of Persuasion, Description, History, General Assessment, Bibliography