5 minute read

Twentieth-Century Philosophies Feminist


Feminist philosophical work is making an impact in other areas of philosophy such as metaphysics (Charlotte Witt, Sally Haslanger, Marilyn Frye, Christine Battersby), aesthetics (Peg Brand, Cynthia Freeland), and the philosophy of religion (Pamela Sue Anderson, Ellen Armour, Gail Jantzen).

For those who would critique feminist philosophy as motivated by political concerns and thus not a pure philosophy, Alcoff providers a reminder that much work in the history of western philosophy emerged out of particular political motivations, including the work of René Descartes (1596–1650), Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), John Locke (1632–1704), and Bertrand Russell (1872–1970). As Alcoff explains, "like Kant, feminist philosophers are committed to using philosophical methods to clarify and disempower the current dogmatisms that inhibit political advance" (p. 55).


Addams, Jane. Democracy and Social Ethics. New York: Macmillan, 1902.

Alcoff, Linda Martín. 2001. "On Judging Epistemic Credibility: Is Social Identity Relevant?" In Engendering Rationalities, edited by Nancy Tuana and Sandra Morgen. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001.

Anderson, Pamela Sue. A Feminist Philosophy of Religion: The Rationality and Myths of Religious Belief. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.

Antony, Louise M. "Quine as Feminist: The Radical Import of Naturalized Epistemology." In A Mind of One's Own: Feminist Essays on Reason and Objectivity, edited by Louise M. Antony and Charlotte Witt. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1993.

Armour, Ellen T. Deconstruction, Feminist Theology and the Problem of Difference: Subverting the Race/Gender Divide. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Babbitt, Susan E. Impossible Dreams: Rationality, Integrity, and Moral Imagination. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996.

Baier, Annette. A Progress of Sentiments: Reflections on Hume's Treatise. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991.

Battersby, Christine. The Phenomenal Woman: Feminist Metaphysics and the Patterns of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Beauvoir, Simone de. The Second Sex. Translated and edited by H. M. Parshley. New York: Knopf, 1953.

Bordo, Susan. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Brand, Peg, and Mary Devereaux, eds. "Women, Art, and Aesthetics." Special issue of Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy 18, no. 4 (2003), entire issue.

Card, Claudia. Lesbian Choices. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.

Code, Lorraine. What Can She Know? Feminist Theory and the Construction of Knowledge. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Cooper, Anna Julia. A Voice from the South. Xenia, Ohio: Aldine, 1892.

Conley, John J. The Suspicion of Virtue: Women Philosophers in Neoclassical France. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2002.

Deutscher, Penelope. Yielding Gender: Feminism, Deconstructionism, and the History of Philosophy. London: Routledge, 1997.

Dykeman, Therese Boos, ed. The Neglected Canon: Nine Women Philosophers First to the Twentieth Century. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 1999.

Fraser, Nancy. Unruly Practices: Power, Discourse, and Gender in Contemporary Social Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989.

Freeland, Cynthia. But Is It Art?: An Introduction to Art Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Frye, Marilyn. The Politics of Reality: Essays in Feminist Theory. Trumansburg, N.Y.: Crossing Press, 1983.

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. Women and Economics: A Study of the Economic Relation between Men and Women as a Factor in Social Evolution. Boston: Small, Maynard, 1898.

Goldman, Emma. The Traffic in Women and Other Essays in Feminism. New York: Times Change Press, 1970.

Grosz, Elizabeth A. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. St. Leonards, Australia: Allen and Unwin, 1994.

Harding, Sandra. Whose Science? Whose Knowledge?: Thinking with Women's Lives. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Haslanger, Sally. "Feminism and Metaphysics: Negotiating the Natural." In Cambridge Companion to Feminism in Philosophy, edited by Miranda Fricker and Jennifer Hornsby. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Held, Virginia. Feminist Morality: Transforming Culture, Society, and Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Herman, Barbara. The Practice of Moral Judgment. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Hoagland, Sarah Lucia. Lesbian Ethics: Toward New Value. Palo Alto, Calif.: Institute of Lesbian Studies, 1988.

Irigaray, Luce. Speculum of the Other Woman. Translated by Gillian C. Gill. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1985.

Jaggar, Alison. Feminist Politics and Human Nature. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Allanheld, 1983.

Jantzen, Gail. Becoming Divine: Towards a Feminist Philosophy of Religion. Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 1998.

Kittay, Eva. Love's Labor: Essays on Women, Equality, and Dependency. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Kofman, Sarah. The Enigma of Woman: Women in Freud's Writings. Translated by Catherine Porter. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1985.

——. Socrates: Fictions of a Philosopher. Translated by Catherine Porter. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Le Dœuff, Michèle. The Philosophical Imaginary. Translated by Colin Gordon. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1989.

Lloyd, Genevieve. The Man of Reason: "Male" and "Female" in Western Philosophy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.

Longino, Helen. Science as Social Knowledge: Values and Objectivity in Scientific Inquiry. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Lugones, María. Pilgrimages Peregrinajes: Theorizing Coalition Against Multiple Oppressions. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.

Nelson, Lynn Hankinson. Who Knows: From Quine to a Feminist Empiricism. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.

Nussbaum, Martha C. Sex and Social Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

O'Neill, Eileen. "Disappearing Ink: Early Modern Women Philosophers and Their Fate in History." In Philosophy in a Feminist Voice: Critiques and Reconstructions, edited by Janet A Kourany. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Pisan, Christine de. The Book of the City of Ladies. Translated by Rosalind Brown-Grant. London: Penguin, 1999.

Potter, Elizabeth. Gender and Boyle's Law of Gases. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Ruddick, Sara. Maternal Thinking: Towards a Politics of Peace. Boston: Beacon, 1989.

Scheman, Naomi. Engenderings: Constructions of Knowledge, Authority, and Privilege. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Silvers, Anita, David Wasserman, and Mary B. Mahowald, eds. Disability, Difference, Discrimination: Perspectives on Justice in Bioethics and Public Policy. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.

Spelman, Elizabeth. Inessential Woman: Problems of Exclusion in Feminist Thought. Boston: Beacon, 1988.

Tougas, Cecile T., and Sara Ebenrick, eds. Presenting Women Philosophers. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000.

Tuana, Nancy. 1993. The Less Noble Sex: Scientific, Religious, and Philosophical Conceptions of Woman's Nature. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

——. Woman and the History of Philosophy. New York: Paragon House, 1992.

Weiss, Gail. Body Images: Embodiment as Intercorporeality. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Wells-Barnett, Ida B. On Lynchings. Amherst, Mass.: Humanity Books, 2002.

Witt, Charlotte. "Feminist Metaphysics." In A Mind Of One's Own, edited by Louise Antony and Charlotte Witt. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1993.

Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Women. London: J. Johnson, 1792.

Wylie, Alison. Thinking From Things: Essays in the Philosophy of Archaeology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Young, Iris Marion. Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Zack, Naomi. Race and Mixed Race. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.

Nancy Tuana

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Evolution to FerrocyanideTwentieth-Century Philosophies Feminist - Social And Political Theory, Ethics, History Of Philosophy, Epistemology And Philosophy Of Science, Conclusion