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Metaphysics

Renaissance to the PresentBibliography

Bacon, Francis. The New Organon. Edited by Lisa Jardine and Michael Silverthorne. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Carnap, Rudolf. Philosophy and Logical Syntax. Bristol, U.K.: Thoemmes Press, 1996. This most recent edition is out of print. The work is widely available online.

Descartes, René. The Philosophical Writings of Descartes. 3 vols. Translated by John Cottingham, Robert Stoothoff, Dugald Murdoch, and Anthony Kenny. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Hegel, Georg. Phenomenology of Spirit. Translated by A. V. Miller. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977.

Husserl, Edmund. Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy. First Book: General Introduction to a Pure Phenomenology. Translated by D. Cairns. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1988.

Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. Translated and edited by Paul Guyer and Allen W. Wood. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Leibniz, Gottfried. Philosophical Essays. Edited and translated by Roger Ariew and Daniel Garber. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1989.

Locke, John. An Essay concerning Human Understanding. Edited by Peter Nidditch. Oxford: Clarendon, 1975.

Nietzsche, Friedrich. Beyond Good and Evil. Translated by Walter Kaufman. New York: Vintage Books, 1966.

Peirce, C. S. "What Pragmatism Is." Monist 15, no. 2 (1905): 161–181.

Spinoza, Benedictus de. The Collected Works of Spinoza. Vol. 1. Edited and translated by Edwin Curley. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1985.

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Mathematics to Methanal trimerMetaphysics - Renaissance to the Present - The Renaissance (1433–1617), The Early Modern Period (1561–1753), Final Causes, Kant's "copernican Revolution" In Metaphysics