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Mestizaje

Spread And Influence

Nonlinear thought and unfixed identities have intellectual and political appeal for numerous fields, especially those also influenced by poststructural and postmodern schools of thought. Because of the liberatory dimensions of the concept of mestizaje, it is widely used in postcolonial, ethnic, and feminist studies and Latino theology. Most credit Anzaldúa with creating the aperture for understanding and theorizing about the ability to have multiple social perspectives and positions with concrete material forms of oppression or privilege.

The scholars Chela Sandoval and Emma Pérez, as well as the Latino theologian Virgilio Elizondo, explore the implications of mestiza consciousness for U.S. Third World feminists, including Chicana feminists and Latino Catholic congregations, respectively. For Elizondo, mestizaje is divine grace, which elevates the spiritual qualities of mestizaje as articulated by Vasconcelos but without the Eurocentric imperative. Mestizaje becomes the existence that resurrects humanity, and all have the potential for salvation since Elizondo ultimately describes all cross-cultural contacts as mestizaje. Expansions of the concept by Elizondo and others have been met by intense criticism. Most Latino theologians, such as María Pilar Aquino and Gloria Inés Loya, present its historical specificity as an important term of its experience and path to salvation. The recuperative properties of mestizaje are significant for postcolonial scholars. Both Chicana feminists Pérez and Sandoval reveal how the new mestizaje offers a political method or compass for mobilizing oppositional forms of consciousness that will produce equity. It is a method that develops and exceeds the modes of assimilation, revolution, supremacy, and separatism, each of which is a strategy unable to reconcile or allow for the multiple social positions and perspectives as delineated by Anzaldúa.

By the early twenty-first century, the concept of hybridity and cross-cultural contact had permeated social science and humanities scholarship. It also continued to travel North, and French-Canadian scholars relate it to métissage (French; "mixed blood"). Whether universal or not, the contemporary reconfiguration explores sites of convergence and disjuncture with attention to the pressure of power, and its meaning can be used to assess the distance between mestizaje and métissage. Nevertheless, reformulations of mestizaje have recuperative power for those maligned by nation and empire, sexism and homophobia, material and political displacement. If the analysis of intercultural exchange includes attention to ambiguity and contradiction, mestizaje can continue to offer a strategy of resistance and liberation in the twenty-first century.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alarcón, Norma. "Chicana Feminism: In the Tracks of 'the' Native Woman." In Living Chicana Theory, edited by Carla Trujillo, 371–382. Berkeley, Calif.: Third Woman Press, 1998.

Anzaldúa, Gloria. Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. San Francisco: Spinsters/Aunt Lute, 1987.

Aquino, María Pilar, Daisy L. Machado, and Jeanette Rodríguez. A Reader in Latina Feminist Theology: Religion and Justice. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002.

Elizondo, Virgilio. The Future Is Mestizo: Life Where Cultures Meet. Rev. ed. with a new foreword by Sandra Cisneros and introduction by Davíd Carrasco. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2000.

Gonzales, Rodolfo "Corky." "I Am Joaquin." In Latino/a Thought: Culture, Politics, and Society, edited by Francisco H. Vázquez and Rodolfo D. Torres, 75–87. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.

Noriega, Chon A. "Between a Weapon and a Formula: Chicano Cinema and Its Contexts." In Chicanos and Film: Representation and Resistance, edited by Chon A. Noriega. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

Loya, Gloria Inés. "Pathways to a Mestiza Feminist Theology." In A Reader in Latina Feminist Theology: Religion and Justice, edited by María Pilar Aquino, Daisy L. Machado, and Jeanette Rodríguez, 217–240. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002.

Paz, Octavio. The Labyrinth of Solitude: Life and Thought in Mexico. Translated by Lysander Kemp. New York: Grove Press, 1961.

Pérez, Emma. The Decolonial Imaginary: Writing Chicanas into History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.

Sandoval, Chela. "Mestizaje as Method: Feminists-of-Color Challenge the Canon." In Living Chicana Theory, edited by Carla Trujillo, 352–370. Berkeley, Calif.: Third Woman Press, 1998.

Vasconcelos, José. The Cosmic Race: A Bilingual Edition. Translated and annotated by Didier T. Jaén; afterword by Joseba Gabilondo. Reprint, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

Karen Mary Davalos

Additional topics

Science EncyclopediaScience & Philosophy: Mathematics to Methanal trimerMestizaje - Origins, Chicanos And Mestizaje, Critique And Reformulation, Spread And Influence, Bibliography