Other Free Encyclopedias » Science Encyclopedia » Science & Philosophy: Anticolonialism in Southeast Asia - Categories And Features Of Anticolonialism to Ascorbic acid » Architecture - Overview - Early Humans In Europe, Antiquity: Egypt, Greece, Rome, Middle Ages, Modern Era

Architecture - Overview - Postmodernism

press building century university

As the twenty-first century opened, new architectural paradigms emerged. One building type that gained new cachet as the embodiment of urban identity and cultural striving was the art museum. Such commissions came to represent the pinnacle of an architect's career, particularly after Frank Gehry made the small city of Bilbao, Spain, a cultural destination with his Guggenheim Museum on the waterfront there.

Gehry's free-form undulating buildings are only one representation of postmodernism, a multifaceted philosophical MBF Tower, Penang, Malaysia. Constructed 1990–1993. In designing the MBF Tower, architect Ken Yeang utilized construction methods that allowed for natural light and ventilation, a technique seen more and more frequently in the twenty-first century. PABLO ZIEGLER/EMPORIS.COM and artistic expression derived from literary analysis. In many instances the drive of late-twentieth-century architects to break the strictures of conventional mid-twentieth-century modernism rendered their efforts both disjointed and self-absorbed. The counterpart to this kind of postmodernism is found in so-called developing countries around the globe. Since roughly 1950 there has been a growing reawakening in these areas to long-standing regional building cultures and building methods. This "critical regionalism" encourages architects to draw once again on the wisdom gained in centuries of construction in their regions, in preference to the imported European and American building forms and methods, with the accompanying reliance on high energy consumption for lighting, heating, and cooling buildings. This regionalism began with the work of Hasan Fathy in Egypt and his advocacy of adobe brick in vaulted and domed construction, a time-honored building method in that land, and one that used building materials available at minimal cost. More recently in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, numerous Middle Eastern countries, and generally in the Third World nations, there has been a return to traditional building forms (but often using twentieth-century materials) for various public buildings but especially for mosques because of their strong symbolic importance. In Sri Lanka, architect Geoffrey Bawa drew on imagery associated with traditional small-scale village meeting houses for his expansive Sri Lanka Parliament of Sri Lanka, Kotte (near Colombo). Constructed 1980–1983. Beginning in the mid-twentieth century, some architects advocated a return to traditional designs that drew upon the resources readily available in the area. Drawing internally on the British House of Commons, the external forms are inspired by ancestral local buildings of assembly. © 2004 LANDOV LLC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION Parliament building complex; its recognizable broad overhanging eaves and open pavilion-like structures providing shade and free movement of air in this tropical country.

Around the globe, as the twenty-first century began there was rising interest in sustainable building design and construction, in using materials in ways that minimize toxic production methods, and in using natural sunlight for energy and natural air movement and water for cooling. In this way, over time, the impact of such architecture on public resources will be limited and the total social and economic cost minimized. Among many late-twentieth-century architects who drew on this design philosophy, one whose work is particularly interesting is Ken Yeang of Malaysia. His thirty-two-story MBF Tower in Penang employs the skyscraper tower form, a symbol of progressive modernity, but also uses traditional ideas such as curved external terraces and separation of elements to promote natural ventilation in place of massive cooling machinery.

These examples demonstrate that there need be no elemental conflict between the use of modern materials such as concrete, glass, steel, and aluminum in the creation of traditional forms that reflect long-established ways of living and also make accommodation to local climatic conditions.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bergdoll, Barry. European Architecture, 1750–1890. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Bony, Jean. French Gothic Architecture of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Braham, Allan. The Architecture of the French Enlightenment. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

Burenhult, Gören, ed. People of the Past: The Epic Story of Human Origins and Development. San Francisco: Fog City, 2003. A global treatment of human origins and the earliest cultures, drawing on the expertise of scores of expert contributors and the results of recent archaeological discoveries.

Collins, Peter. Changing Ideals in Modern Architecture, 1750–1950. 2nd ed. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 1998.

Curtis, William J. R. Modern Architecture since 1900. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1996.

Heydenreich, Ludwig Heinrich. Architecture in Italy, 1400–1600. 2 vols. 1903. Reprint, New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1995–1996.

Hurwit, Jeffrey M. The Athenian Acropolis: History, Mythology, and Archaeology from the Neolithic Era to the Present. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Jencks, Charles. The Language of Post-Modern Architecture. 6th ed. New York: Rizzoli, 1991.

Kalnein, Wend von. Architecture in France in the Eighteenth Century. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1995.

Klotz, Heinrich. The History of Postmodern Architecture. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1988.

Lewis-Williams, David. The Mind in the Cave: Consciousness and The Origins of Art. London and New York: Thames and Hudson, 2002.

Moffett, Marian, Michael Fazio, and Lawrence Wodehouse. Buildings across Time: An Introduction to World Architecture. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2004.

Rhodes, Robin F. Architecture and Meaning on the Athenian Acropolis. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Roth, Leland M. American Architecture: A History. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2001.

——. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. New York: Icon Editions, 1993.

Smith, William S. The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt. 3rd ed., rev. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998.

Steele, James. Architecture Today. London: Phaidon, 1997.

Trachtenberg, Marvin, and Isabelle Hyman. Architecture from Pre-history to Postmodernity. 2nd ed. New York: Abrams, 2002.

Ward-Perkins, J. B. Roman Imperial Architecture. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1981

Wittkower, Rudolf. Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism. 4th ed. London: St. Martin's, 1988.

Leland M. Roth

Architecture - Overview - Bibliography [next] [back] Architecture - Overview - Modern Era

User Comments

Your email address will be altered so spam harvesting bots can't read it easily.
Hide my email completely instead?

Cancel or

Vote down Vote up

2 months ago

http://bikinbajusekolah.wordpress.com/
http://bikinbajusekolah.wordpress.com/2014/10/03/konveksi-baju-seragam-tk-di-cipadu/
http://bikinbajusekolah.wordpress.com/2014/10/03/konveksi-baju-seragam-tk/
http://bikinbajusekolah.wordpress.com/
http://konveksi-baju-sekolah.blogspot.com/2014/10/tempat-buat-baju-seragam-sekolah-di.html
http://konveksi-baju-sekolah.blogspot.com/
http://konveksi-baju-sekolah.blogspot.com/2014/10/konveksi-baju-seragam-paud-di-jakarta.html
http://konveksi-baju-sekolah.blogspot.com/

Vote down Vote up

2 months ago

After all, most of the reasons of people who write blogs are not at all confined to their own personal motives.
Konveksi Baju Sekolah
Konveksi Baju Seragam Sekolah
Bikin Baju Sekolah
Konveksi Baju Seragam Sekolah
Bikin Baju Seragam Sekolah
Pesan Baju Seragam Sekolah
Konveksi Seragam Sekolah