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Islamic Philosophies - Philosophical Theology In Islam, Transmission And Development Of Greek Science And Philosophy, Al-kindi And The Assimilation Of Greek Neoplatonic Metaphysics

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All Muslims hold the Koran as the very word of God, who provides guidance and understanding of creation and proper human conduct by divine wisdom (hikma). This wisdom is also reflected in the oral statements of the prophet Muhammad collected in the Traditions (hadith) and in the reports of the life and deeds (sunna) of the Prophet. The study of these in the traditional Islamic religious sciences of Koranic commentary (tafsir), Traditions, religious law (al-fiqh), Arabic grammar, and related religious studies is the human response to the command of the Koran to seek out knowledge and understanding (20:114; 39:9). That search for knowledge and understanding is not limited to studies strictly religious since the whole of creation manifests divine wisdom. Hence medicine, mathematics, and study of nature can be included in the divine command, though these are classified as foreign sciences and rational or intellectual sciences. Philosophy, which retains its reference to its non-Islamic origins in its transliterated form as falsafah, is located in this second group but nevertheless came to be identified by the philosophers of the Islamic milieu with the wisdom (al-hikma) mentioned in the Koran and Traditions of the Prophet. In the classical period (eighth to twelfth centuries) the major philosophers of the lands of Islam (dar al-islam) characterized philosophical understanding at the highest levels as concerned with principles ultimately founded in God and thereby claimed a rightful stake in knowledge of the divine and of God's creation for the rational sciences. The significance of this idea can hardly be overemphasized since this controversial assertion of the value of independent rationality was a hallmark of philosophy in the classical period and has had a deep and lasting influence not only among Muslim, Christian, and Jewish philosophical thinkers in Islamic lands but also in the medieval Latin West, where its effect was shocking and altogether new.

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over 6 years ago


By Allama Muhammad Yousuf Gabriel

In your capacity as a nuclear scientist you are requested to kindly attest the truth of the characterization of atomic energy given in the following pages. It will be on your part an act highly obligating and one deserving of hearty gratitude.
The distinguishing characteristics and the distinctive characteristics of atomic energy:-

In the following we will give the characteristics of the atomic energy which distinguish it from other kinds of energy, chemical, electrical or gravitational. And we will give the characteristics of atomic energy which though found in some degree in others kinds of energy too, yet the atomic energy maintains a position quite supreme among them.

The distinguishing characteristics are :-
(i) Atomic energy is a crusher.
(ii) Atomic energy leaps up onto the hearts. The distinctive features are :-
(1) Atomic energy shows the characteristics of encompassing.
(2) Atomic energy raises outstretched columns.
(3) Nuclear science is extremely complex.

We will now discuss every point one by one.
How the atomic energy is a crusher, a breaker? The answer is :-
Atomic energy is generated by breaking the binding of the atom, and hence it is that it is called the binding energy. No other kind of energy is generated in this manner. The nucleus of the atom in the act of the generation of the atomic energy disintegrates. The atomists have recognized this trait of atomic energy that is the trait of crushing. The standard text books of atomic physics are replete with terms like: crashing, smashing, breaking hitting etc. while describing the actions of atomic particles; and the term “bremsstrahlung” which literally means the breaking radiation, when coined by the Germans for the continuous spectrum of rays. It was regarded by the atomistic as highly descriptive.

In the reactions of every kind of energy the atomic nucleus remains untouched and intact except in the atomic energy which properly is to be called the nuclear energy. The atomic energy thus breaks and crushes the atom which actually is the basic building block of the universe. The rearrangement of the particles of atomic nucleus has hitherto at least been considered as impossible by any means of synthesis to mean that the crushing has been absolute. Similarly the radiations attack the cell nucleus and crush it by breaking the chromosomes. The cell it has to be remembered is the basic unit of life. No arrangement of the repair of the broken chromosome has hitherto been possible by any means of synthesis. The atomic energy thus may be termed as the absolute crusher.

How the atomic energy leaps up onto the hearts?
(a) To discuss this point we have to establish first the identity between the word nucleus and heart. It is the common practice among the topmost atomists to call the nucleus as heart. Edward Teller spoke in 1939 of obtaining the energy from the heart of atom in a lecture delivered by him. (Vide : the Hydrogen Bomb by James. R. Sheply and Clay Blair Jr. Pages 48-49). And the standard text books of atomic physics may be found replete with statements as follows:-

“Each fast particle comes from the break up of the very heart of a single atom…. The Nucleus… of the radioactive material”.
(Vide: physics, physical sciences study committee… 2nd edition .D.C.Heath and Company Lexington, Massachusetts, July 1965 pages 130)
“How many nuclear heart-beats are in the life-time of a radioactive nucleus which lasts only billionth of a second”? (Ibid page 21. short problems)
Arab lexicographers have translated the modern word nucleus as heart. And now after the identity between the nucleus and heart is established, let us show how the atomic energy leaps up onto the hearts:-
This point attains clearance the very moment we call the atomic energy as nuclear energy. And we call the atomic energy as the nuclear energy because it generated in the nuclei of atoms. The atomic energy is generated in the nuclei of the atoms. The atomic particles, say neutrons, leap up onto the nuclei that is the hearts of atoms as is the case in the fission process of the atomic energy generation. In the fusion process of the atomic energy generation, we see the atomic heat generated by the inner fission device directed onto the fusile material, where it fuses the nuclei of several, say : four atoms together in groups and the energy is liberated. This later is the case in which the leaping up of the atomic fire onto the hearts can be seen in a clearer manner. Further, this leaping up onto the hearts that is the nuclei of atoms may be observed in the reactions and actions of atomic radiations which are inherent in the very nature of atomic energy. In the inanimate matter the radiations cause transmutations of atoms by crushing their nuclear order and producing changes therein. In living body they eject nucleons from the atomic nuclei and they attack the cell nucleus and break the chromosomes. Against the brain, the nerves and the muscles they show a particular preference in the body to all that is related to heart, e.g. the bone-marrow, the blood-forming organs .etc. Again, in the absence of oxygen the action of radiations is retarded.. Also all the multicultural organisms are without exception more sensitive to effect of radiations than all the unicellular organisms. This fact may be attributed to the fact that of the comparative elaborateness and perfect ness of the circulatory and respiratory systems of the multi-cellular organism. After all these examples it may be inferred that the radiations have particular, preferential attraction toward all these blood relations of the heart.

(b) Now after we have seen the two traits of atomic energy, namely, first that of crushing, and secondly that of leaping up onto the nuclei that is hearts, we can justly say that the atomic energy is a nuclear crusher, as well as a thermo nuclear crusher. The term thermonuclear can be seen to be the scientific representation of the layman’s statement that the atomic energy is a fire which leaps up onto the hearts. It may here be marked that this characteristics that of leaping up to the nuclei is the distinguishing characteristics of atomic energy, distinct from any other type of energy, just as the crushing trait of atomic energy has been found to be a distinguishing characteristics of its own not to be found in any other kind of energy.
(2) How the atomic energy is the encompassing fire. It appears as encompassing fire as follows :-

(a) Atomic bomb explosion itself takes the form of an inverted cauldron, and further its radioactive fallout forms yet another enclosure around the first one. The fallout of the megaton thermonuclear bomb forms the global enclosure that is enclosure around the entire earth.

(b) Radiation keeps guard over its victim. Cancers have been observed to appear between six and thirty six years after the actual exposure to radiation.

(c) Cell is attacked by radiation in its resting stage, while the effects of radiation appear in its anaphase.

(d) In case only one organ is irradiated, the whole body is encompassed by the radiation.

(e) Lethally irradiated frogs if kept in a temperature just above freezing point in a dormant state; they would survive for months instead of dying within usual time interval of three to six weeks. Radiation keeps guard over such frogs and they soon after they are warmed up begin to show the symptoms of radiation sickness and die in the usual time interval that of three to six weeks. Radiation all this time remained on guard.

(f) Radioactive substances could not be expelled from the body once they have entered therein.

(g) Alexander Haddow suggested the cancer-producing action of the cancer-producing substances to be the result of prolonged interference with the normal growth. Though a mere suggestion and unacceptable as an established fact of science, yet it shows that the peculiar trait of radiation that of encompassing has been sensed by the radiobiologist.

(h) Radiation encompasses mankind, even all life to future generations through radio-genetic effects. The mutated genes move from generation to generation secretly, till in some future generation they manifest their existence in the form of abnormal birth. This abnormality being inheritable the malady moves on in generations. Radiation encompasses this earth even after it has made life extinction it.

(i) The full encompassment by the radiation may, however, be reserved for those generations which will see atomic energy in full-fledged state in some future time when atomic radiations will form a network all over the world.

(2) Outstretched columns of atomic energy:-

(a) Outstretched columns of atomic bomb explosion:-
The outstretched column of the atomic bomb explosion has become a symbolical feature of the atomic bomb explosion, and it differentiates the atomic bomb explosion from the conventional bomb. It is a feature observable by all and is known to everyone.

(b) Radio-active atomic particles raise columns too :-
It is not only the atomic bomb explosion that raises a column, but rather the radioactive atomic particles too raise columns by themselves, rather the world of radioactivity is a world of columns. A single uranium 235 fission liberates huge energy equal to 200 Mev and if a copper atom has to traverse a height of one inch only, it has to move on a distance equal to 100 million times its own diameter, but we find that an alpha particle which is much smaller than the copper atom in size, and whose radius is of the order of about 10-13 cm, rise to the height of 3to 7 cm. If we take 4 centimeters as the average, we understand that the particle has traversed a distance equal to millions of millions of times its own diameter. A foot-ball to rise in air in the same ratio to its size would move far out into the outer space. Gamma rays despite extreme smallness traverse a distance of200 yards in air. This ratio is further formidable, rather inexpressibly large. Beta rays move several yards in air. The neutron in the fission chain reaction of Uranium-235 has to move on a distance more than ten thousand times its size while rising from one nucleus to another, yet the neutron is checked by the absorbing nucleus, otherwise it can traverse relater distances if left to move unchecked. It means that the feature of raising columns is inherent in the nature of atomic energy itself, and is not confined to the atomic bomb explosion only. Further we find the cosmic rays falling in showers on earth from the outer space. What formidable heights these columns would have. And it may also be remembered that so fast is the speed of the atomic particles, (Gamma Rays move with the speed of light), that a rising particle would appear like the light of lightening, and so spearing like a column to our sight.

(3) The complexity of the atomic phenomena :-
Nuclear Science is a subject complex beyond comparison.

Now that the characteristics of the atomic energy have been discussed, the atomic energy may be defined as follows:-
“Atomic energy is an energy which is generated by crushing the binding of the atom, that is by disintegrating the nuclei of the atoms, and all its reactions take place in the nuclei of atoms, and it shows encompassing characteristics and it raises columns”.

This definition may well be expressed, particularly when addressing the audience of laymen, without damaging the essential spirit of the definition as follows:-
“Atomic energy is a crushing fire which leaps up onto the hearts. It is a fire closed in on them in outstretched columns”.
The characteristics of the atomic energy discussed in the previous pages are either those that distinguish the atomic energy from every type of energy exclusively, or show the distinction of the atomic energy among other types of energy.

It is hereby attested that the atomic energy basically, characteristically and distinctly is an energy which is :-
(i) A crusher, a breaker.
(ii) Leaps up onto the nuclei that is hearts.
(iii) Shows encompassing tenacity.
(iv) Raises columns.
(v) Belongs to a subject that is the subject of nuclear science, which is extremely complex.
Name in Block Letters:


Designation if any :___________________________________

Address:- __________________________________________

Signature: __________________________________________

To the philosopher:-
You are hereby requested to kindly attest the truth of the following points:-
(1) That the word’s propaganda” has found its meanings changed from mere propagation to defamation in this modern age of intellectual and sophisticated type of calumny.
(2) That this modern progress is based on Bacon’s design of modern atomism. And Bacon’s design has been the attainment of man’s dominion over nature for material benefits through continuous, systematic research of science as man’s business on earth. This modern progress consequently is continuous, systematic, every-increasing and infinite. In short the entire scheme and practice is concerned with engrossment in the pursuit of wealth and physical comforts, and Bacon’s philosophy of atomism is a creed in itself exclusively of world in opposition to every revealed religion.
(3) That atomic energy has appeared in the course of the research of science for the purpose of material well-being and wealth-acquirement, and has appeared as a necessity for the progress, and that its adoption and stay in future too is due to the necessity of the progress. The atomic energy appears as the logical and scientific consequence of the modern material progress. The modern economico-industrial setup necessitates the stay of atomic energy in the absence of any other source of energy.
(4) That the general belief is that this progress will continue for ever or at least it has the propensity of continuing for ever, and indeed it is not possible to apply breaks to it at any point in a world of competition as a matter of fact, till it has approached its logical end. The confirmation by the philosopher :-
(5)The truth of these points 1 to 4 is hereby confirmed.

Name in block Letters.
Designation if any :_____________________________________
And now the scientist and the philosopher, if you have attested the truth of the scientific and the philosophic points presented, then know that you have attested the truth of the prophetic treatment of the atomic hell by the Quran. The text of the prophecy is as flows:-
"Woe unto every backbiter, defamer, who amaseth wealth (of this world) and arrangeth it (against the future). He thinketh that his wealth will render him immortal. Nay, for verily he will be cast into Al-Hotama. And what could teach you what Al-Hotama is? It is fire of Allah enkindled which leaps up onto the hearts. It is (a fire) closed in on them in outstretched columns".
(Quran-CIV- Al-Homaza)
You can see that all that you have attested as regards the atomic energy as well as the modern philosophy of atomism can be found in the prophecy to the letter. The Quran has used the word Hotama which is a descriptive, qualitative noun formed from the root-verb Hatama which means to break something to pieces. The word Hotama thus means a crusher, a breaker. Mark the phonetic resemblances between the two words that is Hotamic and atomic, and so also between the word atom and Hatam. Hatam being of pure Arabic origin while atom is an adoption from the Greek word atomos. The point though of no scientific significance, yet is interesting; also, the Quran has used the word “Hearts” for nuclei. Hotama, however, is a particular hell of the next eternal world. The atomic hell of this world is but its transitory representation, Justas fire is of hell, and garden is of paradise.
And now in short, is it correct to :-
(1) That because atomic energy is generated by breaking he binding of the atomic nucleus, and this breaking he binding of the atomic nucleus, and his being a distinguishing feature of the atomic energy alone, the atomic energy be called a breaker, crusher, and further be a cause the atomic energy disintegrates the atomic nucleus, and the atomic radiations break the cell nucleus chromosomes that is both the basic building block, hat is the atom, and the basic unit of life, that is cell , are crushed, and at present at least irreparably the atomic energy may be called a breaker, a crusher, even absolutely crusher.
(2) And the because the atomic energy is generated within he atomic nuclei, and its actions and reactions take place therein , and further that the actions of the atomic radiations to take place within the atomic nuclei, the atomic energy is called the nuclear energy, that is an energy which heaps up onto he nuclei, and thus because the nucleolus and hear are used as synonymous, even by the standard ext books of the atomic physics, the atomic energy maybe described as an energy leaping up onto the hearts this again is a distinguishing feature of the atomic energy alone.
(3) And that because the atomic radiations attack he cell in its resting stage and the effects of radiation appear only in the anaphase of the cell, and further because the atomic radiation through their long-term radio genetic effects encompasses mankind , even all life o future generations, keeping secret for several intervening generations, and further the radiations can keep his earth encompassed for millions of years according to the half-ills of various radioactive substances after the radiations have made life extinct on earth. This fact may be observed on a smaller scale in the ease of the atomic bomb explosion, where the fission products may keep the areas predictive for long times, he quality of encompassing may be imputed o atomic energy.
(4) And that raising the column is a characteristic feature of atomic energy, the column of the atomic bomb explosion is known to every one, while the knowledgeable scientists can see that the radioactive particles too raise columns. This may be seen when the highest of the jumps of the radioactive a particles are measured against their little diameters, rather the world of radioactive substances appear as the world of columns. The four centimeter jump of an alpha particle that has a radius of 10-13 centimeter is millions times of the diameter of the alpha particle. A foot ball or a shell rising in the same ratio to its own diameter would rise high out into the outer space. Then this cosmic rays make what formidable heights of columns. Speed would cause rays to appear as columns. \Jo such ratio of the size of the jumping substances the higher of their may be seen in the case of chemical energy etc. Physical world.
(5) And that the subject of nuclear science is so complex as to baffle the ingenuity of the human scientist; If these particulars are correct then please kindly in your capacity as the nuclear scientist be your approval as regards the following :-
(6) (i)That atomic energy is a crusher, a breaker.
(7) (ii)That it is the energy which leaps up onto the nuclei that is hearts.
(8) (iii) That is endowed with encompassing features.
(9) (iv) That raises columns.
(10) (v)And that the subject of nuclear science is extremely and unusually compels
(11) Plwaw invlxoklwrrwe NMW
Designations if any


Allama Muhammad Yousuf Gabriel
C/O Khalid General Strores, Main Bazar, Nawababad, Wah Cantt. Distt. Rawalpindi,
www. soonvalley.com

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over 6 years ago

By Allama Muhammad Yousuf Gabriel

(1) Abraham (the Patriarch of Islam):
Abraham gave the name of Al-Islam. Through Moses and Jesus Islam was completed and perfected in Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Them All).
"And (remember), when His Lord tried Abraham with His commands, and he fulfilled them, He said: Lo! I have appointed thee a leader for mankind". (Quran 2 x 124).
"And I will make thee (O Abraham) exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee". (Bible- Genesis XVII-6)
"And as for Ismael, I have heard thee (O Abraham): Behold! I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly: twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation". (Bible-Genesis XVII-20)
(2)Abraham to Mohammad -A line. "And when Abraham and Ismael, were raising the foundations of the house (of God in Mecca), (Abraham prayed), Our Lord accept from us (this duty). Lo! Thou, only thou art the hearer, the knower, our Lord! and make us submissive unto thee and of our seed a nation submissive unto thee, and show us our ways of worship, and relent toward us. Lo! Thou, only thou art the relenting, the merciful. Our Lord and raise up in their midst a messenger from among them who shall recite unto them thy revelations, and shall instruct them in the scripture and in wisdom, and shall purify them. Lo! Thou, only thou art the mighty, the wise". (Quran 2 x127-129)
"When his Lord said unto him (Abraham) surrender! He said : I have surrendered to the Lord of the worlds. The same did Abraham enjoin upon his sons, and also Jacob, (saying) O My sons! Lo! Allah hath chosen for you the (true) religion; therefore die not save as men who have surrendered (unto Him)". (Quran 2 x 131-132) .
“Lo! Abraham was a nation obedient to Allah, by nature upright, and he was not of the idolators; thankful for his bounties: He chose him unto a straight path. And we gave him good in the world, and in the hereafter he is among the righteous. And afterwards we inspired thee (O Mohammad), (saying) : Follow the religion of Abraham as one by nature upright. He was not of the idolators". (Quran -XVI-120123).
(3) Torah, Gospel and Quran in Succession :
"Lo! We did reveal Torah wherein is guidance and a light, by it did the Prophets who professed Islam judge the Jews; and the doctors and the teachers (judged), by that portion of the book of God, of which they were the keepers and the witnesses. Therefore (O, Jews) fear not men but fear Me; and barter not away My signs for a mean price. And whoso will not judge by what God hath sent down-----such are the infidels. And therein have We enacted for them, life for life, and eye for eye, and nose for nose, and ear for ear, and tooth for tooth, and for wounds retaliation----whoso shall compromise it as alms shall have therein the expiation (of the sins); and whoso will not judge by what God hath sent down----- such are the transgressors. And in the footsteps of the prophets caused We Jesus, the son of Mary, to follow, confirming the law which was before him. And we gave him the Evangel with its guidance and light, conformatory of the preceding law; and guidance and warning to those who fear God. And that the people of the Evangel may judge according to what God hath sent down therein. And whoso will not judge by what God hath sent down---- such are the perverse. And to thee (O, Mohammad) we have sent down the book (of the Quran) with truth, conformatory of previous scriptures, and their safeguard, judge therefore between them by what God hath sent down, and follow not their desires by deserting the truth which hath come unto thee. To every one of you we have given a rule and a beaten track". (Quran 5 x 44-48)
(4) Islam Ultimately Perfected in the Quran
"This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed my favours unto you, and have chosen for you as religion Al-Islam". (Quran 5 x 3)
"The faith of your father Abraham. He hath named you Muslims of old time, and in this scripture (Quran, that the messenger (Muhammad) may be a witness against you, and that ye may be witness against mankind". (Quran 20 x 78)
"Say (O Muhammad): We believe in Allah and that which is revealed unto us and that which was revealed unto Abraham and Ismael and Issac and Jacob and the Tribes, and that which was vouchsafed unto Moses and Jesus and the prophets from their Lord, We make no distinction between any of them, and unto him we have surrendered. And whoso seeketh as religion other than Al-Islam (the surrender to Allah). It will not be accepted from him, and he will be a loser in the hereafter". (Quran 3 x 84-85)
“He (Allah) it is who hath sent His Messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth that He may cause it to prevail over all religion .And Allah sufficeth as a witness". (Quran 48 x 28)
"Lo! The religion of Allah (is) Al-Islam. Those who formerly received the scriptures differed only after knowledge came unto them, through transgression among themselves. Whoso disbelieveth the revelations of Allah (will find that) Lo! Allah is swift at reckoning". (Quran 3 x 19)
"He (God) hath ordained for that religion which He commanded unto Noah, and that which we inspire in thee (O, Mohammad), and that which we commanded unto Abraham and Moses and Jesus, saying establish the religion and be not divided therein". (Quran 42 x13)
"When Allah entered into the covenant with the Prophets, He said: This is the wisdom and the book which I give you. Hereafter shall a prophet come unto you to confirm the scripture already with you. Ye shall surely believe on him, and ye shall surely aid him. Are ye resolved? Said he, and do you accept the covenant of these terms. They said: We are resolved, be yet then witnesses, said He, and I will be a witness as well as you. And whoever turneth back after this, these are surely the perverse. Other religion than that of Allah desire they? To Him doth everything that is in the heavens and in the earth submit in willing or forced obedience, and to Him do they return". (Quran 3 x 81-83)
(5) The prophecy of Torah about Muhammad Discussed
"My chastisement will fall on him, whom I will, and my mercy embraceth all things, and I write it down for those who shall fear me, and pay the alms, and believe in our signs, who shall follow the apostle, the unlettered prophet. Whom they shall find described with them in the Torah and the Gospel. What is right, will he enjoin them, and forbid them what is wrong, and will allow them healthful viands and forbid the impure, and will ease them of the burden, and of the yokes which were upon them; and those who shall believe in him, and help him, and follow the light which hath been sent down with him----these are they with whom it shall be well. Say to them: O Men, verily I am God's apostle to you all: Whose is the kingdom of the heavens and of the earth. There is no God but He. He maketh alive and killeth. Therefore believe on God and his apostle-----the unlettered prophet-----who believeth in God and His word. And follow Him, that ye may be guided aright". (Quran 7 x 156-158)
Following is the prophecy of Moses in Torah about Muhammad (peace be upon him), as is alluded to by the Quran in above-quoted passage thereof. Moses said to the Children of Israel:-
"The Lord thy God will raise up onto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken; according to all that thou desirest of the Lord thy God in horeb, in the day of assembly, saying, let me not hear again the voice of the Lord my God, neither let me see this great fire any more that I die not. And the Lord said unto me, they have well (spoken that) which they have spoken. I will raise them a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words, in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him. And it shall come to pass (that) whosoever will not hearken unto my words, which he shall speak in my name, I will require (it) of him. But the prophet which shall presume to speak a word in my name which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of the other Gods, even that prophet shall die. And if thou say in thine heart, how shall we know the word which the Lord hath not spoken. When a prophet speaketh in the name of the Lord, if the thing followeth not, nor come to pass, that (is) the thing which the Lord hath not spoken, (but) the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously. Thou shalt not be afraid of him". (The Bible- Deutronomy XVIII-15-22)
"Your comrade erreth not, nor is deceived; nor doth he speak of (his own) desire. It is not save an inspiration (of God) that is inspired in him, which one of the mighty powers hath taught him". (Quran 53 x 2-5)
And “Nay, I swear by all that ye see and all that ye see not, that it is indeed the speech of an illustrious messenger. It is not poet's speech----little is it that ye believe! Nor diviner's speech----------little is that ye remember.! It is a revelation from the Lord of the worlds. And if he had invented false saying concerning us, we assuredly had taken him by the right hand and then severed his life-artery. And not one of you could have held us off from him". (Quran 69 x 38-47)
And also that not one of the prophecies of the Quran has failed or proved false.
(6) The Prophecy of Jesus About Muhammad Discussed
Quran says, Jesus prophecised about Muhammad by name:-
“And (remember) when Jesus, son of Mary, said: "O children! (Of Israel) . Lo! I am the messenger of Allah unto you, confirming that which was (revealed) before me in Torah, and bringing good tidings of a messenger who cometh after me, whose name is Ahmad (Muhammad). (Quran 61 x 6)
The Prophecy of Jesus Christ about Muhammad, Peace Be Upon Them both, in the Gospel:
Jesus Christ in his last days and in realization of his approaching departure said to his disciples:-
"But I go my way to Him that sent me, and none of you asketh me, wither goest thou, but because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart. Nevertheless I tell you the truth, it is expedient for you that I go away: For if I go not away the "Comforter" will not come unto you, but if I depart, I will send him unto you. And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment, of sin, because they believed not on me; of righteousness, because I go to my father, and ye see me no more; of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged.
I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. Howbeit, when he, the spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth. For he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, (that) shall he speak: And he will show you things to come. He shall glorify me. For he shall receive of mine, and shall show (it) unto you. All things that the father hath are mine; therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall show it unto you. A little while and ye shall not see me: And again, a little while, and ye shall see me, because I go to the father". (Gospel-ST John XVI-5-16)
Discussing this marvelous prophecy of Jesus Christ (Peace Be Upon Him), we read:-
(1). The word Comforter. For "if I go not away the "Comforter" will not come unto you".
In the present English version of the Gospel appears the word Comforter. Previously in Greek translation of the Gospel, the Paracletos was there, which means advocate. Identical in sound with Paracletos stands the word Periclytos, which means exactly as the word "Ahmad" or "Muhammad" means, namely: The Praised one: glorified one. And this proves the statement of the Quran that Jesus prophecised about the Prophet of Islam by name that is Ahmad (Quran 61x6). The promised "Comforter" was believed by many Christian communities of the East to be a Prophet yet to come, and most of them accepted Muhammad as that Prophet. Nor the prophecy of Moses about the Arabian Prophet could be missed. Islam, however, today stands as a perfect, experienced truth and the most needed religion for this distressed mankind to offer the remedy for all the present day ills and to guide this mankind away from these atomic threats unto the path of real peace and real prosperity as against this illusive peace and illusive prosperity of Baconian culture.
(2). “I have yet many things to say unto you" Says Jesus, " but ye cannot bear them now". It means that the truth which Jesus had given was as yet to be developed and perfected.
(3). Says Jesus "Howbeit, when he the spirit of truth, is come. He will guide you into all truth". The Quran says :-
“And Lo! it is a revelation of the Lord of the worlds, which the true spirit hath brought down upon thy heart, that thou mayest be (one) of the warners, in plain Arabic speech. And lo! It is in the scriptures of the men of old". (Quran 26 x 192-196)
The prophet (peace be upon him) himself was named as the truthful and the Honest, even before his assumption of his prophetic office. Says Jesus" When he the spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth". Allah in the Quran says "Verily we have displayed for mankind in the Quran all manner of similitudes". (Quran 18 x54)
Almighty Allah has explained in various ways all things to men in Quran; but of all things man is most contentious.
(4). Says Jesus “For He shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall bear, that he shall speak". The Quran says " Nor doth he speak of his own desire. It is not save an inspiration (of God) that is inspired in him, which one of mighty power hath taught him". (Quran 53 x 2-5)
And indeed the angel brought the message of the Quran to Mohammad, Peace Be Upon Him, from Allah and spoke, and the prophet heard. The Quran says: "It is a revelation from the Lord of the worlds. If he had invented false sayings concerning us, we assuredly had taken him by the right hand and then severed his life-artery". (Quran-69 x 46)
(5). Says Jesus "And he will show you things to come". Quran indeed is replete with prophecies and predictions. Some of which have seen their fulfillment, while some still await their fulfillment. Also, the Quran tells not only of the things of the future in this world, but has drawn a complete picture of the next life in heaven, not to be found either in the old or the new testament of the Bible.
(6). Jesus says:- “He shall glorify me" The Quran says about Jesus:- "Allah's word which he conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit from him". (Quran 4 x 171)
And “Illustrious in the world and the hereafter, and one of those brought near (unto Allah)". (Quran 3 x 45)
And “A revelation for mankind and a mercy from us". (Quran 19 x 21)
And “And his mother was a saintly woman". (Quran 5x75)
And “And Lo! We made the son of Mary and his mother a portent". (Quran 23 x 50)
(7). Says Jesus" He shall glorify me, for he shall receive of mine, and shall show it unto you".
There is enshrined a great fact in this which Jesus has said. "He shall glorify me, for he shall receive of mine, and shall show it unto you". We will now exemplify this fact, the fact of the attestation of Gospel by the Quran and the development thereof. But before we do this let us see what new thought Jesus Gave to Mosaic religion.
Jews were not only by nature a people steeped in the world, but their religion too appearing at a particular stage of development, had not taught them of otherworldliness, or disinterestedness, or resurrection. They were only taught how to live in this world in accordance with the commandments of their God, the Lord God of Israel. The idea of resurrection was taken by the Jews later from Eastern Religions. Christ appeared with his teachings of otherworldliness, disinterestedness and resurrection. His message was:-
“Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal. But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also". (Gospel-X ST Mathew VI -19- 21)
"Therefore take no thought, saying, what shall we eat, or, what shall we drink? Or, wherewithal shall we be clothed? ---- But seek ye first the Kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you. Take therefore no thought for the morrow. For the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof". (Gospel- ST Mathew VI -31-34)
Now this was a strange teaching for the Jews. It neither was to their liking, nor was it comprehensible to them, for they had seen no such thing in their own Bible. Whatever, however, be the reaction of the Jews to such a message this was the evangelic introduction to the Old Testament. Six centuries before Jesus Christ when Isaiah was Prophesying among the Jews in Babylon, Buddha in India was teaching exactly what Christ preached to the Jews six hundred years later regarding the otherworldliness.
The Jewish people at the time of Jesus lived only in the outward ritual and the ceremonial without the inward meanings whatsoever. Jesus desired to introduce heart besides the head. This also was something new and novel for the Jews. The vested interests were also an obstacle. Jesus, however, told them what he had to tell in this respect. And his view of the Law may be cited as an example. He said:-
"Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, thou shalt not commit adultery: But I say unto you, that whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart”. (Gospel –ST Mathew V 27-28)
Lex Tailonis, that is the law of retaliation, life for life, tooth for tooth, was the basic rule of Jewish law, but Jesus preached:-
“Ye have heard that it hath been said, an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth: But I say unto you, that ye resist not evil: But whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also” (Gospel St Mathew-V 38-39)
We will revert to our topic. Jesus has said that" He shall glorify me, for he shall receive of mine, and shall show it unto you".
We have seen the difficult nature of the teachings of Jesus in the above-quoted examples.
They appear even a generally impracticable except for the elite. But it is amazing to see that the Quran should treat all the teachings of Jesus in a generalized, systematized and categorized form, presented in various standards according to perfection. We shall clarify the point by examples. But before we do this, let this be understood that the assumption that Muhammad, (Peace be Upon Him) had borrowed the principles of religion from here and there, is erroneous and based on ignorance about the actual reality. Islam is in itself an entity, revealed by Allah himself in stages, and no one has borrowed any thing from anyone. Islam as a process, began with the first of the prophets of Allah, and developing gradually from stage to stage culminated in the form which Muhammad (peace be upon him) presented to the world. Allah has asserted this fact in the Quran as follows:-
"Lo! We have inspired thee (O Muhammad) as we inspired Noah and the prophets after him, as we inspired Abraham and Ismael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and Jesus and Job, and Jonah and Aaron and Solomon, and as We imparted unto David the Psalms; and Messengers we have mentioned unto thee before and messengers we have not mentioned unto thee, and Allah speak directly unto Moses; messengers of good cheer and of warning, in order that mankind might have no argument against Allah after the messengers. Allah was ever mighty, wise". (Quran-4 x163-165)
And the Quran has enjoined on the Muslim to abide by the Islam in its completeness. Patchwork is not allowed. The Quran says:-
"O ye who believe! enter into complete submission, and do not follow the foot-steps of the devil, for his is your own enemy. But if you slip after clear arguments have come to you, then know that God is mighty, wise". (Quran 2 x 208-209)
And now in the following, we will give the examples of the identity existing between the teachings of Jesus Christ and the Quran which has confirmed the truth of Jesus and Moses and all the prophets of Allah:-
“Lay not up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal: But lay up for yourselves treasures in heavens, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also".
(Gospel-ST Mathew VI-19-21)
"That which ye have, wasteth away, and that which Allah hath remaineth. And verily we shall pay those who are steadfast recompense in proportion to the best of what they used to do". (Quran 16 x 96)
"We record that which they send before (them), and their foot prints. And all things we have kept in a clear register". (Quran36x12)
"And coin for them the similitude of the life of the world as water which we send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingleth with it and then becometh dry things that the winds scatter". (Quran -18 x 46)
“But seek ye first the Kingdom of God, and His righteousness: and all these things shall be added unto you". (Gospel-ST Mathew-VI-33)
“Race therefore one with another for forgiveness from your Lord, and a paradise whereof the breadeth is as the breadth of the heavens and the earth, which is in store for those who believe in Allah and his messengers. Such is the bounty of Allah, which He bestoweth upon whom He will, and Allah is of infinite bounty". (Quran-57 x 21)
“Therefore I say unto you, take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment? ......for your heavenly father knoweth that ye have need of all these things". (Gospel-ST Mathew VI-25-32)
"There is not a beast in the earth but the sustenance thereof dependeth on Allah. He knoweth its habitation and its repository, all is in a clear record". (Quran- 11 x 6)
“Behold the fowls of the air: For they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns, yet your heavenly father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they?". (Gospel-ST Mathew VI-26)
"And how many an animal there is that beareth not its own provision! Allah provideth for it and for you. He is the hearer, the knower". (Quran-29 x 60)
“(Jesus said unto him), if thou wilt be perfect, go (and) sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: And come and follow me". (Gospel-ST Mathew XIX -21)
“Lo! Allah hath bought from the believers their lives and their wealth because the garden will be theirs (in heaven) : They shall fight in the way of Allah and shall slay and be slain. It is a promise which is binding on him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Quran. Who fulfileth his covenant better than Allah? rejoice therefore in your bargain that ye have made, for that is the supreme triumph". (Quran-9 x 111)
“They ask thee what they ought to spend. Say: That which is superfluous. Thus Allah maketh plain to you (his) revelations that haply ye may reflect upon the world and the hereafter". (Quran-2 x 219-220)
That is, the thought of hereafter will be a consideration while you are fixing the proportion between your own share and that of Allah to be spent in his name.
“Then said Jesus unto his disciples, verily I say unto you, that a rich man shall hardly enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. And again I say unto you, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God, when the disciples heard (it), they were exceedingly amazed, saying, who then can be saved? But Jesus beheld (them), and said unto them, with men this is impossible, but with God all things are possible". (Gospel-ST Mathew XIX 23-26)
Quran "Lo! They who deny our revelation and scorn them, for them the gates of heaven will not be opened nor will they enter the garden until the camel goeth through the needle's eye. Their's will be a bed of hell and over them coverings (of hell). Thus do were quite wrong-doers". (Quran-7 x 40-41)
Mark the difference that which Jesus said of the rich, the Quran says of those who deny the revelations of Allah.
You have read about the amazement of the disciples of Jesus. It is interesting to observe that a similar occasion appeared during the revelation of the Quran. The disciples of Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) , were deeply concerned when they heard the revelation:-
“Whether ye make known what is in your minds, or hide it, Allah will bring you to account for it". (Quran-2 x 284)
When this sign of the Quran was revealed, the companions (disciples) of the Prophet were greatly worried to hear it, for the condition was too difficult. And they were grievously troubled in their heart just as the disciples of Jesus were exceedingly amazed when they had heard that it was almost impossible for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of Heaven. The Quran upon their perplexing, first enjoined them to say, “We hear and we obey, and then pacified them by telling them", that Allah tasketh not a soul beyond its scope". (Quran 2 x 285)
"Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am come not to destroy, but to fulfill. For verily I say unto you, till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one title shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall break one of the least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the Kingdom of heaven, but whosoever shall do and teach (them), the same shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven". (Gospel ST Mathew -V-17-19)
"There are the limits (imposed) by Allah. Transgress them not. For whoso trasngreth Allah's limits. Such are wrong-doers". (Quran- 2 x 229)
"The noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct". (Quran-49 x 13)
"Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, thou shalt not commit adultery But I say unto you, that whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart". (Gospel ST Mathew V-27-28)
"Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and be modest. That is purer for them. Lo! Allah is aware of what they do. And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest". (Quran-24 x 30-31)
"The adulterer and the adulteress, scourge ye each one of them (with) a hundred stripes. And let not pity for the twin withhold you from obedience to Allah, if ye believe in Allah and the last day. And let a party of believers witness their punishment". (Quran-24 x2)
"And if thy right hand offend thee, out it off, and cast (it) from thee for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and no (that) thy whole body should be cast into hell". (Gospel-St Mathew V-30)
“As far the thief, both male and female, cut off their hands. It is the reward of their own deeds, an exemplary punishment form Allah. Allah is mighty, wise". (Quran-5 x 38)
“Woe unto the world because of offences! For it must need be that offences come. But woe to that man whom the offence cometh! Wherefore if thy hand or thy foot offend thee, cut them off, and cast (them) from thee: It is better for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands, or two feet to be cast into everlasting fire". (Gospel-ST Mathew XVIII-7-8)
"The only reward of those who make war upon Allah and His messenger and strive after corruption in the land will be that they will be killed or crucified, or have their hands and feet cut off on alternate sides, or will be expelled out of the land. Such will be their degradation in the world, and in the hereafter heir’s will be an awful doom; save those who repent before you overpower them. For know that Allah is forgiving, merciful". (Quran-5 x 33-34)
“Believe thou not that I am in the father and the father in me? The words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself. But the father that dwelleth in me, He doeth the works". (Gospel ST John XIV-10)
“Ye (the Muslims) slew them (infidels) not but Allah slew them, and thou (O Muhammad) there west not when thou didst throw (the handful of pebbles that was cast into the eye of the army of the infidels of Mecca in the battle of Al-Bedr), but Allah threw, that He might test the believers by a fair test from him. Lo! Allah is hearer, knower". (Quran-8 x 17)
"Ye have heard that it hath been said, an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth, but I say unto you, that ye resist not evil: But whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also". (Gospel ST Mathew V-38-39)
“Turn aside evil with that which is better". (Quran-23 x 96)
"The guerdon of an ill-deed is an ill, the like thereof. But whosoever pardoneth and amendeth, his wage is the affair of Allah. Lo! He loveth not wrong-doers. And whoso defendeth himself after he hath suffered wrong-for-such, there is no way (of blame) against them. The way (of blame) is only against those who oppress mankind, and wrongfully rebel in the earth. For such there is a painful doom. And verily whoso is patient and forgiveth ----Lo! That verily is (of) the steadfast heart of things". (Quran-42 x 40-43)
“Ye have heard that it hath been said, thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy. But I say unto you, love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despite-fully use you and persecute you". (Gospel-ST Mathew V 43-44)
“The good deed and the evil deed are not alike. Repel the evil deed with one which is better, then Lo! He between whom and there was enmity (will become) as though he was a bosom friend. But none is granted it save those who are steadfast, and none is granted it save the owner of great happiness". (Quran- 41 x 34-35)
"Lo! This Quran guideth unto that which is straightest, and giveth tidings unto the believers who do good works that heir’s will be a great reward". (Quran 17 x 9)
"Blessed (are) the meek for they shall inherit the earth".
(Gospel ST Mathew V-5)
" The (faithful) slaves of the beneficent are they who walk upon the earth modestly, and when the foolish ones address them, answer: Peace; ------They will be rewarded the high place for-as-much as they were steadfast, and they will meet therein with welcome and the word of peace, abiding there for ever. Happy is it as abode and station". (Quran 25 x 63-76)
"Lo! Those who go in awe for fear of their Lord.....And those who give that which they give with hearts of raid because they are about to return unto their Lord. These race for the good things, and they shall win them in the race". (Quran-23 x 57-61)
“Take heed that ye do not your alms before men; to be seen of them: Otherwise ye have no reward of your father which is in heaven". (Gospel ST Mathew VI-1)
“If ye publish your alms-giving, it is well, but if ye hide it and give it to the poor, it will be better for you and will atone for some of your ill-deeds. Allah is informed of what ye do". (Quran 2 x 271)
“And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites (are); for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, they have their reward. But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy father which is in secret; and thy father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly". (Gospel ST Mathew IV 5-6)
“(O Mankind): Call upon your Lord humbly and in secret. Lo! He loveth not transgressors". (Quran 7 x 55)
“If ye keep my commandments, ye shall abide in my love, even as I have kept my father's commandments, and abide in his love" (Gospel ST John XV-10)
“Say (O Muhammad) to mankind, if you love Allah, follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you yours sins. Allah is forgiving, merciful". (Quran 3 x 31)
“And everyone that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands for my sake, shall receive an hundred fold, and shall inherit everlasting life". (Gospel ST Mathew XIX-29)
“Say if your fathers and yours sons, and your brethren, and your wives, and your tribe, and the wealth ye have acquired, and merchandise for which ye fear that thee will be no sale, and dwellings ye desire are dearer to you than Allah and his messenger and striving in his way; then wait till Allah bringeth his command to pass. Allah guideth not wrong-doing folk". (Quran 9 x 24)
" Go to now, ye that say, today or tomorrow we will go into such a city, and continue there a year, and buy and sell, and get again, whereas ye know not what(shall be) on the morrow. For what (is) your life? It is even a vapour that appeareth for a little time, and then vanisheth away. For that ye (ought) to say, if the Lord will, we shall live, and do this and that". (James IV-13-15)
QURAN "Say not of any thing Lo! I shall do that tomorrow, except if Allah will, and remember thy Lord when thou forgetest, and say: It may be that my Lord guideth me unto a nearer way of truth than this ". (Quran 18 x 23)
So far as the Torah of Moses is concerned, God in the Quran has retained a part, and has left another, and yet another part has been adopted in a modified form, as God himself thought fit. Judging from the state of Mosaic religion and the Christian religion separately, and their conflict mutually, the appearance of the Quran was a logical necessity to give the teachings in a reformed and settled state.
In these previous pages we have treated those of the doctrines of Jesus Christ which are generally regarded as extreme, even impracticable except for the few elite and eccentrics. And we have shown them in comparison to the views of the Quran. The Quran evidently has endorsed them all to the letter, to prove that the Quran is in no way behind Christianity or any other spiritual creed in spiritualism or otherworldliness. There remains no reason to retain the misunderstanding about Islam regarding its views of this world, and wealth, and this modern progress, this systematic, organized, ever-increasing science-guided, infinite and eternal progress of Baconian culture. Islam is a complete, and perfect, and the last of religions. It was completed and perfected in the time of the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) himself. The views of Islam regarding this present day Baconian culture were as manifest in those days when the Quran was being revealed as they are today. The necessity and existence, the necessity and exigency originating from this Baconian culture, cannot figure as a plea for Ijtihad, in an endeavour to find justification of the features of this Baconian culture, for that means no more than a manifest deception, but what actually is needed is Jehad (and not Ijtihad) against this Baconian culture in an endeavour to revert to that Islam which was in the time of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) himself, for there is no midway house, if an escape from atomic hell is desired. Is not the Chapter of Al-Homaza that has existed in the Quran for the past fourteen centuries, enough to open the eyes of men. If not, then let the time decide the matter and show the truth to he doomed race of mankind in a practical form.
Allama Muhammad Yousuf Gabriel
Adara Afqar e Gabrial Quaid e Azam Street Nawababad Wah Cantt
Distt Rawalpindi Pakistan