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Tree - Cohesion-tension Theory

water potential trunk moves

Most plant physiologists now accept the "cohesion-tension theory" as an explanation for the ascent of sap. According to this theory, water moves up the trunk of a tree in narrow, elongated cells near the periphery of the trunk, referred to as the xylem, and does not require the expenditure of metabolic energy. The movement of water only depends upon three important physical-chemical properties of water.

The first important property of water is that it always moves from a region with a more positive water potential, to a region with a more negative potential. Water potential is a measure of the energy available in a solution of water. Thus, water moves out of the leaves and into the air because the water potential of the air is more negative; water moves out of the tree trunk and into the leaves because the water potential of the leaves is more negative; water moves out of the roots and into the trunk because the water potential of the trunk is more negative; and water moves out of the soil and into the roots because the water potential of the roots is more negative.

The second important physical-chemical property of water is that it is a cohesive molecule. In other words, water molecules tend to bind to one another through the formation of hydrogen bonds. The cohesiveness of water molecules gives the thin water columns in a tree trunk a very great tensile strength. This prevents breakage of the water column when great longitudinal stresses are placed upon it as it is pulled out of the leaves and into the air.

The third important property of water is that it adheres very tightly to the walls of xylem cells in the tree's transport pathway. Adhesion of water to these cell walls maintains the full hydration of the pathway for water transport. This prevents breakage of the water column, and allows water transport even when a tree is water-stressed in a dry environment.


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about 7 years ago

LOOOOOOL

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about 10 years ago

First of all.



It is often the case that there is a greater negative potential in the soil, especially during flooding and certainly in the case of a vase full of cut flowers, yet the water flows around the plant without any signs of revere flow occurring, which should be the case with the negative potential you mention.

I do not accept that the atmospheric pressure on a vase of water adds to your explanation of negative and positive water pressure because the same force is exerted on the tree or cut plant



It is also assisted by gravity potential which appears to be overlooked in this negative water potential, given those rivers and streams flow using this potential I think it's worth a mention.



For the true picture of fluid circulating in trees and plants, google “Andrew K Fletcher”

http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=1982.0



Gravity provides the power required in a tree lifting water, evaporation provides a density change in fluids at the top of the tree, causing denser fluids to sink and dilute fluids to rise by the negative tension generated from the downward flowing sap.

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over 10 years ago

How about explaing that in English?

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almost 6 years ago

this sucks

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about 1 year ago

I found another site that breaks it down into something a bit easier to swallow and has a bit more detail. Of course, it is only a .com and not a .org, so it may be a bit more unreliable.
https://www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless-biology-textbook/plant-form-and-physiology-30/transport-of-water-and-solutes-in-plants-183/movement-of-water-and-minerals-in-the-xylem-698-11923/

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over 1 year ago

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almost 6 years ago

funny





Most plant physiologists now accept the "cohesion-tension theory" as an explanation for the ascent of sap. According to this theory, water moves up the trunk of a tree in narrow, elongated cells near the periphery of the trunk, referred to as the xylem, and does not require the expenditure of metabolic energy. The movement of water only depends upon three important physical-chemical properties of water.



The first important property of water is that it always moves from a region with a more positive water potential, to a region with a more negative potential. Water potential is a measure of the energy available in a solution of water. Thus, water moves out of the leaves and into the air because the water potential of the air is more negative; water moves out of the tree trunk and into the leaves because the water potential of the leaves is more negative; water moves out of the roots and into the trunk because the water potential of the trunk is more negative; and water moves out of the soil and into the roots because the water potential of the roots is more negative.



The second important physical-chemical property of water is that it is a cohesive molecule. In other words, water molecules tend to bind to one another through the formation of hydrogen bonds. The cohesiveness of water molecules gives the thin water columns in a tree trunk a very great tensile strength. This prevents breakage of the water column when great longitudinal stresses are placed upon it as it is pulled out of the leaves and into the air.



The third important property of water is that it adheres very tightly to the walls of xylem cells in the tree's transport pathway. Adhesion of water to these cell walls maintains the full hydration of the pathway for water transport. This prevents breakage of the water column, and allows water transport even when a tree is water-stressed in a dry environment.







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Read more: Tree - Cohesion-tension Theory - Water, Potential, Trunk, and Moves - JRank Articles http://science.jrank.org/pages/6949/Tree-Cohesion-tension-theory.html#ixzz1ekG5mmsJ

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almost 7 years ago

I once was told by a professor of plant science that there was a minus 300 psia potential at the stomata pulling the water up. I asked him where did the potential come from? He said it was wonderful what plants could do. I decided to leave. I have spent much time reading reports by plant scientists and and ijn some cases responding. I have written my comments in the following document.

/Users/charlesredman/Desktop/Fluid Dynamics of Trees-10.pdf

If you can't pull this document up, email me and I will send you a copy. redman0143@comcast .net