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Pneumonia - Pathophysiology Of Pneumonia

alveoli fluid pneumonias blood

The invading organism causes symptoms, in part, by provoking an overly exuberant immune response in the lungs. The small blood vessels in the lungs (capillaries) become leaky, and protein-rich fluid seeps into the alveoli. This results in a less functional area for oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange. The patient becomes relatively oxygen deprived, while retaining potentially damaging carbon dioxide. The patient breathes faster and faster, in an effort to bring in more oxygen and blow off more carbon dioxide.

Mucus production is increased, and the leaky capillaries may tinge the mucus with blood. Mucus plugs actually further decrease the efficiency of gas exchange in the lung. The alveoli fill further with fluid and debris from the large number of white blood cells being produced to fight the infection.

Consolidation, a feature of bacterial pneumonias, occurs when the alveoli, which are normally hollow air spaces within the lung, instead become solid, due to quantities of fluid and debris.

Viral pneumonias, and mycoplasma pneumonias, do not result in consolidation. These types of pneumonia primarily infect the walls of the alveoli and the parenchyma of the lung.

Pneumonia - Diagnosis [next] [back] Pneumonia - Causative Organisms

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over 5 years ago

Pathophysiology
Bacteria typically enter the lung with inhalation, though they can reach the lung through the bloodstream if other parts of the body are infected. Often, bacteria live in parts of the upper respiratory tract and are continually being inhaled into the alveoli. Once inside the alveoli, bacteria travel into the spaces between the cells and also between adjacent alveoli through connecting pores. This invasion triggers the immune system to respond by sending white blood cells responsible for attacking microorganisms (neutrophils) to the lungs. The neutrophils engulf and kill the offending organisms but also release cytokines which result in a general activation of the immune system. This results in the fever, chills, and fatigue common in bacterial and fungal pneumonia. The neutrophils, bacteria, and fluid leaked from surrounding blood vessels fill the alveoli and result in impaired oxygen transportation.
Bacteria often travel from the lung into the blood stream and can result in serious illness such as septic shock, in which there is low blood pressure leading to damage in multiple parts of the body including the brain, kidney, and heart. They can also travel to the area between the lungs and the chest wall, called the pleural cavity.

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over 5 years ago

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung, especially of the alveoli (microscopic air sacs in the lungs) or when the lungs fill with fluid (called consolidation and exudation). There are many causes, of which infection is the most common. Infecting agents can be bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Chemical burns or physical injury to the lungs can also produce pneumonia
Typical symptoms include cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty in breathing. Diagnostic tools include x-rays and examination of the sputum. Treatment depends on the cause of pneumonia; bacterial pneumonia is treated with antibiotics.
Pneumonia is a common disease that occurs in all age groups. It is a leading cause of death among the young, the old, and the chronically ill. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. The prognosis depends on the type of pneumonia, the treatment, any complications, and the person's underlying health.

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almost 2 years ago

Thank you

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almost 6 years ago

pathophsiology

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almost 8 years ago

tnks!! i was able to have a clear rationale for my ncp because of this.

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over 5 years ago

Pneumonia - Pathophysiology Of Pneumonia

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over 1 year ago

please send me the citation

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almost 6 years ago

pneumonia

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over 5 years ago

im a nursing student :D

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10 months ago

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over 8 years ago

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almost 2 years ago

THANK YOU. Very clear and helpful. God bless.

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over 4 years ago

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almost 6 years ago

pathophsiology

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over 1 year ago

Thanx ^^

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over 1 year ago

diagram of pneumonia disease..thank you po.

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over 8 years ago

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over 8 years ago

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over 2 years ago

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almost 8 years ago

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almost 4 years ago

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over 4 years ago

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over 4 years ago

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5 months ago

pneumonia is an inflammatory condition that affects the lung parancyma, characterised by fever and dyspneoa.
it is caused by infectious agents such as bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites.
Regardless of the causative agent or organism, the pathophysiology is mostly the same; it involves four (4) main stages which include the congestion stage, red hepatization stage, gray hepatization stage and the resolution stage.
When the organism reaches the lungs e.g. via droplets it spreads by multiplying in the serous fluid. It triggers an immune response which causes the neutrophils to engulf the organism and release the cytokines which cause an inflammatory reaction.
Stage of Congestion
The first stage is characterized by 1.congestion in the lung; the lung becomes hyperaemic and the capillaries become highly permeable causing fluid from the intra vascular spaces to move into the lung tissue and the alveoli, it reduces space for gaseous exchange causing impaired ventilation. The movement of fluid from the intra vascular space into the lung and alveoli causes the congestion.
2.Red Hepatization Stage
In the second stage the lung appears red and hard like the liver; it’s characterized by massive confluent exudation with red blood cells, neutrophils and fibrin filling the alveolar spaces. This occurs on the 2nd and 3rd day.
3.Gray Hepatization Stage
In the third stage, hyperaemia subsides but the lung remains hard, this is due to progressive disintegration of red blood cells and persistence of fibrin suppurative exudates giving the lung a grayish appearance, this is achieved by reduced blood to the lung, and leukocyte and fibrin consolidate in the affected part.
4.Resolution Stage
The last stage is the resolution stage; it’s characterized by restoration of the pulmonary structure. The consolidated exudates within the lung undergo progressive enzymatic digestion and most debris is ingested by macrophages and coughed out. If complete resolution takes place and healing occurs, the lungs can return to normal and gaseous exchange can resume.

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5 months ago

pneumonia is an inflammatory condition that affects the lung parancyma, characterised by fever and dyspneoa.
it is caused by infectious agents such as bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites.
Regardless of the causative agent or organism, the pathophysiology is mostly the same; it involves four (4) main stages which include the congestion stage, red hepatization stage, gray hepatization stage and the resolution stage.
When the organism reaches the lungs e.g. via droplets it spreads by multiplying in the serous fluid. It triggers an immune response which causes the neutrophils to engulf the organism and release the cytokines which cause an inflammatory reaction.
Stage of Congestion
The first stage is characterized by 1.congestion in the lung; the lung becomes hyperaemic and the capillaries become highly permeable causing fluid from the intra vascular spaces to move into the lung tissue and the alveoli, it reduces space for gaseous exchange causing impaired ventilation. The movement of fluid from the intra vascular space into the lung and alveoli causes the congestion.
2.Red Hepatization Stage
In the second stage the lung appears red and hard like the liver; it’s characterized by massive confluent exudation with red blood cells, neutrophils and fibrin filling the alveolar spaces. This occurs on the 2nd and 3rd day.
3.Gray Hepatization Stage
In the third stage, hyperaemia subsides but the lung remains hard, this is due to progressive disintegration of red blood cells and persistence of fibrin suppurative exudates giving the lung a grayish appearance, this is achieved by reduced blood to the lung, and leukocyte and fibrin consolidate in the affected part.
4.Resolution Stage
The last stage is the resolution stage; it’s characterized by restoration of the pulmonary structure. The consolidated exudates within the lung undergo progressive enzymatic digestion and most debris is ingested by macrophages and coughed out. If complete resolution takes place and healing occurs, the lungs can return to normal and gaseous exchange can resume.

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over 5 years ago

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almost 8 years ago

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almost 9 years ago

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almost 9 years ago

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