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Plant Diseases - History Of Plant Pathology, Causes Of Plant Disease, Bacteria, Fungi, Viruses And Viroids

control crop crops scientific

Like human beings and other animals, plants are subject to diseases. In order to maintain a sufficient food supply for the world's population, it is necessary for those involved in plant growth and management to find ways to combat plant diseases that are capable of destroying crops on a large scale. There are many branches of science that participate in the control of plant diseases. Among them are biochemistry, biotechnology, soil science, genetics and plant breeding, meteorology, mycology (fungi), nematology (nematodes), virology (viruses), and weed science. Chemistry, physics, and statistics also play a role in the scientific maintenance of plant health. The study of plant diseases is called plant pathology.

The most common diseases of cultivated plants are bacterial wilt, chestnut blight, potato late blight, rice blast, coffee rust, stem rust, downy mildew, ergot, root knot, and tobacco mosaic. This is a small list of the more than 50,000 diseases that attack plants. Diseases can be categorized as annihilating, devastating, limiting, or debilitating. As the term suggests, annihilating diseases can totally wipe out a crop, whereas a devastating plant disease may be severe for a time and then subside. Debilitating diseases weaken crops when they attack them successively over time and limiting diseases reduce the viability of growing the target crop, thereby reducing its economic value. Plant diseases are identified by both common and scientific names. The scientific name identifies both the genus and the species of the disease-causing agent.

For the past 50 years, the ability to combat plant diseases through the use of modern farm management methods, fertilization of crops, irrigation techniques, and pest control have made it possible for the United States to produce enough food to feed its population and to have surpluses for export. However, the use of pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, fertilizers and other chemicals to control plant diseases and increase crop yields also poses significant environmental risks. Air, water, and soil can become saturated with chemicals that can be harmful to human and ecosystem health.

Plant Pigment - Absorption Of Radiation, Chlorophylls, Carotenoids, Flavonoids, Phytochrome, Additional Plant Pigments [next] [back] Plant Breeding - Early Selection, Seed Dormancy, Quality, Climatic Adaptation, Pollination And Hybridization, The Impact Of Hybridization On Plant Breeding In The United States

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over 6 years ago

Plant Diseases - History Of Plant Pathology, Causes Of Plant Disease, Bacteria, Fungi, Viruses And Viroids

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almost 6 years ago

history of plant virus

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about 6 years ago

I like the program

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almost 6 years ago

history of plant virus

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over 2 years ago

DIRECTIONS FOR USE OF:NURON-BIOSAFE



AGRICULTURAL DISINFECTANT/ PLANT SANITISER

USE ONLY AS DIRECTED

A contact active liquid agricultural disinfectant / plant sanitiser, active against pathogenic
micro-organisms / bacteria.
DIPPING TANKS
(cold water): 5-10ML POST HARVEST
Dip for 2 – 5 minutes. When foaming under heavy agitation (e.g. hydrocoolers) . Replace the
NURON-BIOSAFE solution as soon as it gets too dirty. Keep NURON-BIOSAFE concentration at recommended levels

GENERAL INFORMATION
The Disinfectant registration of BOISAFE according to the relevant local legislation.
However, if any edible crop to be treated is intended for export, consult beforehand the
relevant importer or exporter of the destination country for more information about the
use of this product and Maximum Residue Limits.
First time application to disinfect wet-walls, give a shock treatment of 100 – 150 mL per 1L
water. Thereafter continue with dosage as recommended.
BIOSAFE not pH dependable and can therefore be used with
irrigation water.
► BIOSAFE stays active as long as it is in solution.
► BIOSAFE has wetting characteristics.
Growing medium (inert- or non-organic), equipment such as pruning shears, ploughs, hands,
footbaths, etc
TOOL DISINFECTION
70 – 90 mL
Make sure that all surfaces are exposed to the BIOSAFE solution. First remove all organic matter
from surfaces. Keep wet with BIOSAFE

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
Cold rooms and packing sheds. Greenhouses, seedtrays, other hard surfaces like picking bins, etc.
BIOSAFE solution for at least 10 minutes for best results.
► The disinfectant BIOSAFE can be applied as a plant sanitiser to
reduce the overall pathogenic load on the foliage without leaving any residual activity.
Water in spray tanks:
For optimum results to dramatically reduce bacterial and fungi counts, including coliforms and E.
coli in the water, allow 20 minutes BIOSAFE exposure time.
When BIOSAFE is used as a foliage spray to sanitise plant surfaces, apply at a rate of 5-10ML
spray mixture per LITER, depending on plant size. (Higher volumes per LITER are necessary for
tree crops.) Ensure that both upper and lower leaf surfaces are treated. IMPORTANT: BIOSAFE
should be incorporated into a normal fungicidal programme for adequate disease control.
Irrigation water for use in nurseries, greenhouses, misting systems, etc.
Rinse irrigation pipes frequently when dosing for the first few times. The dirt/algae/organic
matter will be discharged and may clog the drippers or spitters. BIOSAFE can be used in
fertigated water. Take note: The cleaner the water to be treated the better the results.

► IMPORTANT: Although numerous phytotoxicity trials were done it is impossible to verify the
sensitivity of all the different crop varieties to BIOSAFE It is therefore recommended to first test
known agrochemical sensitive varieties before use on big scale.

► BIOSAFE can be used in post-harvest dump tanks to assists in post-harvest decay management
by killing pathogens in drenches and dump tanks as well as on fruit surfaces. IMPORTANT:
BIOSAFE leaves no residual activity. For effective disease control registered fungicides must
still be used. Fruit and vegetables must not be left in dump tank during any disruption of
production. This could result in serious burning of sensitive fruit.
Water for post-harvest treatment of cut flowers in containers.
The solution can be used 7 – 10 days if kept clean. Do not keep cut flowers in solution for longer
than 72 hours.
► Do not use BIOSAFE in hot water fungicide dipping tanks. This may result in
serious burning of sensitive fruit.

BIOSAFE is recommended for use in many greenhouse and nursery applications,
including:
General Sanitation BIOSAFE is an effective high-level treatment for eradication of
bacteria, algae, fungi, and other harmful plant pathogens on contact. BIOSAFE is
recommended for use with pots, tools, structures, trays, gravel/dirt walkways,
concrete walkways, irrigation lines, and stock tanks. BIOSAFE is completely safe
for plants, making it ideal for greenhouse applications.
Seed Treatment and Vegetative Cutting:
 BIOSAFE is recommended for surface
treatment of vegetative cuttings and seeds to kill harmful fungal and bacterial
plant pathogens.
Direct Injection for Propagation
Inject BIOSAFE through mist lines to treat cuttings and plugs while simultaneously
clearing line-clogging biofilms and algae.
Drench Treatments
Regularly treat non-soil material with BIOSAFE to maintain low disease pressures.
BIOSAFE is recommended as both a curative and preventive application for
young plant material.
Water Treatment
Apply BIOSAFE to help stop cross-contamination in recycled water systems and stored
water systems.
Specially formulated to eradicate bacteria, algae, fungi, and spores on contact,
BIOSAFE is recommended as a curative, preventive, treatment in the soil.
BIOSAFE is also recommended for use in gardens, nurseries, greenhouses, and
orchards for a wide variety of horticultural applications such as direct injection,
cold or thermal fog, vegetative cutting and seed treatment, drench treatment,
water treatment, flowering plants,. BIOSAFE is also recommended for use as an
algaecide and fungicide on: greenhouse structures, pots, benches, watering
systems, storage rooms, evaporative coolers, floors, ventilation equipment, and
other equipment.

BIOSAFE is mutation resistant because its rapid oxidation on surface contact with plants
and materials helps stop the development of tolerant strains of fungi and bacteria.

Kills bacteria,
algae, fungi, and spores on contact
No mutational resistance
Environmentally friendly (non-residual)
Approved for tank mixing
BIOGRO CERTIFIED
BIOSAFE controls many bacteria, algae, fungi, spores, and diseases such as:
Algae
Anthracnose
Brown
Patch
Black Spot
Botrytis
Copper
Spot
Dollar Spot
Downy Mildew
Fairy Ring
Fusarium
Leaf Spot
Pink Snow
Mold
Pseudomonas
Pythium
Phytophthora
Powdery
Mildew
Rhizoctonia
Rust
Scab
Slime Molds
Smut
Summer
Patch
Thielaviopsis
Wilts &
Blights
Regards
Ron Winkle
NZ

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about 5 years ago

i is good

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almost 2 years ago

very informative and concise sharing....!