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Multiple Personality Disorder - History And Incidence

mpd american believe diagnosed

Some psychologists and psychiatrists believe that instances of demon possession recorded over the centuries may have really been MPD, but the first complete account of a patient with multiple personality disorder was written in 1865. Four years later, French neurologist Pierre Janet discovered that a system of ideas split off from the main personality when he hypnotized his female patients. Soon afterward, William James, the father of American psychology, uncovered a similar phenomenon and termed the condition disassociation. In 1886, American author Robert Louis Stevenson popularized the disorder in his novel The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Although this work of fiction captured popular imagination, the concept of multiple personalities was rejected by Sigmund Freud and later by the behaviorists. The mental health community believed the disorder was extremely rare if it existed at all.

Despite well-known movies such as The Three Faces of Eve and Sibyl, which recounted the life stories of women with MPD, by the beginning of the last decade only about 200 cases had been documented in world psychiatric literature. Finally in 1980 the American Psychiatric Association officially recognized multiple personality disorder as a genuine emotional illness.

Today, MPD is a relatively popular diagnosis with 20,000 cases recorded between 1980 and 1990. Researchers currently believe that from 0.01-10% of the general population has this mental illness. MPD occurs from 3-9 times more frequently in women than in men. Some researchers believe that because men with MPD tend to act more violently than women, they are jailed rather than hospitalized and never diagnosed. Female MPD patients often have more identities than men, averaging 15 as opposed to males, who average eight.

Because of the high number of MPD cases being diagnosed in the United States today, some professionals speculate that the diagnosis is culture-specific and caused by some unique characteristic of American society such as the high incidence of child abuse. Other experts, while not denying that MPD exists, believe that the high rate of MPD has been inflated by recent media attention focusing on criminal trials in which defendants use multiple personality disorder for the insanity defense. They also think that overly eager therapists may unknowingly encourage highly-suggestible patients to display symptoms during hypnosis. Experts who counter these assertions state that normal people cannot be taught, even under hypnosis, to imitate the measurable physical changes shown by those diagnosed with multiple personality disorder. They claim that in the past the condition was underreported, a situation now being corrected by a heightened awareness of the disease and its symptoms.


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over 8 years ago

Kim,



I do not know the answer to your first question about left handed vs right handed, but I think I can help wiht your other two. DID is not caused by a gene mutation, and is not really hereditary. It is more of a psychological disorder rather than neurobiological and is usually caused by emotional trauma or abuse. As for any warnings, I read an article about a woman who would get blinding headaches and then dissociate into another personality. Whether this is true for all DID patients, I don't really know. Hope you read this and find it helpful!

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over 7 years ago

Thank you from the bottom of my heart for the information on demon possession. It made more since than any book or other information I have read. MyMy

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over 10 years ago

You guys did a good job doing this site. This helped alot with my school project!


Thanks!

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about 4 years ago

I have been a forensic document examiner with an emphasis on handwriting examinations for the past 35 years, and have had an opportunity to collect writings from a man who has been diagnosed with MPD/DID. In a case study using a writing tablet and accompanying software, we were able to demonstrate that the writings of at least three of the 'personalities' were distinguishable forensically. We are looking for additional studies.

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over 6 years ago

I have recently published my book entitled "Letters from the Inside Out", and am interested in connecting with locations who would be interested in learning more about the publication and the condition it discusses: Dissociative Identity Disorder (previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder).


Please feel free to find more information at my website listed below, or to contact me directly by telephone at 509-774-8233.

This publication has recently been made available through Amazon.com.

Your reply is sincerely anticipated.


Thank you,
Shelly Dowen-Johnson
http://lettersfromtheinsideout.weebly.com

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over 7 years ago

citation

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over 10 years ago

I agree with Kalin. Thanks for the summary report. This helps a lot with my studies.

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over 9 years ago

I agree with Latoya and Kalin, this was very well organized and helped me find everything i needed easliy for my school psych paper. I didn't have to search hard to find the information I was looking for!

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about 2 years ago

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over 6 years ago

I have recently published my book entitled "Letters from the Inside Out", and am interested in connecting with locations who would be interested in learning more about the publication and the condition it discusses: Dissociative Identity Disorder (previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder).


Please feel free to find more information at my website listed below, or to contact me directly by telephone at 509-774-8233.

This publication has recently been made available through Amazon.com.

Your reply is sincerely anticipated.


Thank you,
Shelly Dowen-Johnson
http://lettersfromtheinsideout.weebly.com

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about 2 years ago

hi people, whay are you all stupid

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about 2 years ago

google

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about 2 years ago

CMoore you are stupid!!!!!!

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about 9 years ago

I'm writing a novel in which at least one of my characters is a woman with DID. So far, in my research, I haven't been able to find answwers to the following:

1. Can alters be left-handed if their hosts are right-handed?



2. From which parent would the gene responsible for DID come from?



3. Does the host have a warning that the alter is about to take over?

I look forward to hearing from anyone who could offer helpful information for me.

Thanks!

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about 2 years ago

hi

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about 2 years ago

you guys are so stupid. i fucked last night. ;)

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about 2 years ago

I F***ed my husband last night

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3 months ago

Robert Louis Stevenson is not an American. He comes from Scotland!

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about 1 year ago

I was wondering why did the numbers changed drastically after just a number of years that has passed? Is it because of child abuse is common at these years? or is it because of changes is diagnosis?

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about 2 years ago

Multiple Personality Disorder is explained by Neurocluster Brain Model

The human brain contains billions of neural cells however the man perceives himself as having only one(1) personality, one(1) consciousness, and people who believe in the existence of the soul perceive themselves as having only one(1) soul. Human brain contains billions of neurons however vast majority of people strongly believe that all these billions of neurons contain only one(1) personality, one(1) consciousness, one(1) soul. This “one human body contains one consciousness” model is sufficient to explain the majority of events in casual normal routine life and this is the reason why this model has become de facto accepted model in all human cultures and societies without ever doubting its validity. Medieval scholars were debating the question “how many angels can fit on the head of a pin?” (a.k.a. “how many angels can dance on the head of a pin?”), however nobody has ever raised the question “how many souls can be contained in one human body?” assuming by default that one(1) human body contains only one(1) soul.

However let’s raise a simple question: does this “one human body contains one consciousness” model really can explain all phenomena that man experiences?
The answer is: “one human body contains one consciousness” model actually fails to explain the vast range of phenomena which a man experiences, as it will be shown in this website.
Let’s begin with the simple example.
All religions claim that the soul is immortal and indestructible, the soul is unbreakable, and the soul can not be divided into small pieces.
Some religions (like for example Hinduism) claim that besides humans all living creatures have a soul – all animals, plants, trees do have a soul.
What is the source of these claims about soul properties? All religions claim that their sacred texts are divinely or supernaturally revealed or inspired.
Let’s analyze these claims a little bit.
Hinduism claims that every plant has a soul and that the soul is unbreakable and can not be divided into small pieces (Bhagavad-gītā. 2.23-24).

-------------------------------------------------
http://vedabase.com/en/bg/2
2.23: The soul can never be cut to pieces by any weapon, nor burned by fire, nor moistened by water, nor withered by the wind.
2.24: This individual soul is unbreakable and insoluble, and can be neither burned nor dried. He is everlasting, present everywhere, unchangeable, immovable and eternally the same.
Bhagavad-gītā As It Is. 2.23-24
-------------------------------------------------

However let’s analyze a simple phenomenon like plant propagation from cuttings. Plant cutting (a.k.a. as striking or cloning) is a technique for vegetatively (asexually) propagating plants in which a piece of the stem or root of the source plant is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil, potting mix, coir or rock wool. The cutting produces new roots, stems, or both, and thus becomes a new plant independent of the parent.
Using plant cutting technique we can divide one plant into many pieces and every such new piece now has become a separate plant. Since every plant has a soul, this means that one soul of the original plant was divided into many souls using such primitive technique as plant cutting.
As we can see from this very simple example, religious knowledge (which is claimed to have been originated from divine and supernatural sources) about soul properties contradicts very simple well known experimental facts like plant propagation from cuttings.

Now let’s go to the animal kingdom. The male paper nautilus (a.k.a. argonaut octopus) possesses a specialized, extended tentacle, called a hectocotylus, where packets of sperm are stored. When a male paper nautilus detects a female, the hectocotylus detaches from the octopus body and swims towards the female under its own power. The hectocotylus inserts its load into the female’s mantle and can remain active, depositing sperm in her even as its owner goes on his way. The male, essentially, has sex in absentia. The first scientists to observe the hectocotylus in action actually misidentified it as a parasitic worm attached to the female paper nautilus.
Let’s raise a simple question: has hectocotylus a separate soul or not? Religious sacred texts fail to answer such question.

Those were examples about plants and animals, but what about humans? Anyway, there are many people who believe that only humans have souls and these people believe that plants and animals do not have any soul whatsoever.
Let’s raise a simple question: how many souls are contained in conjoined twins (a.k.a. Siamese twins): one or two souls? Religious leaders get very confused when being asked such a simple question because the fact of multiple human souls residing in one physical body contradicts their religious doctrines.
However let’s raise a simple question: how many souls can be contained in one human body? Humanity did not possess tools and technologies which would allow to investigate this question up until the twentieth century. However in the late 1950s things has dramatically changed when neurosurgeons began experiments with the human brain. Some people have epilepsy. Epilepsy is a phenomenon when a small number of neurons in the brain excite themselves via positive feedback neural circuits which leads to the excitation of nearby neurons and this excessive hypersynchronous neuronal activity spreads through large areas of the brain. There are many ways to treat epilepsy however all these treatments share the same common working principle – in order to eliminate the epileptic seizures you need to suppress the excitement of neurons and you need to suppress the spread of the neural excitement through the large areas of the brain. However in some patients all known treatment methods fail and the patient continues to have frequent and strong epileptic seizures. In the late 1950s neurosurgeons decided to try out new drastic method for dealing with such extra hard epilepsy cases. The hypothesis of new treatment method was the following. Human brain consists of two hemispheres which are connected via link which is called corpus callosum. During the epileptic seizure the synchronous neuronal activity originates in one hemisphere and then via corpus callosum it reaches the another hemisphere thus spreading through the whole brain. If we would cut corpus callosum then synchronous neuronal activity which originated in one hemisphere would be stopped from spreading into another hemisphere and this would eliminate epileptic seizure. Several patients with hardest epilepsy cases were chosen to test out the hypothesis and corpus callosum was cut in these patients. Such patients who have their corpus callosum cut are called “split-brain patients”. The hypothesis of neurosurgeons was confirmed to be correct – the cutting of corpus callosum eliminated or greatly reduced epileptic seizures in split-brain patients. However experiments with split-brain patients revealed very interesting side effect of corpus callosum cutting. The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body. When interconnection between hemispheres (corpus callosum) is cut then both hemispheres begin to act autonomously from each other. For example, when split-brain sits near his wife, the left hand of the patient hugs and fondles the wife, however at the same time the right hand of the patient angrily beats the wife – different hemispheres of the split-brain patient have made different judgments towards the wife and both hemispheres act independently from each other. In other words, the cutting of corpus callosum created two(2) autonomous personalities, which think differently and make different decisions on the same subject and these decisions might be even diametrically opposite. Experiments with split-brain patients revealed that the cutting of corpus callosum produces two(2) autonomous personalities, two(2) autonomous consciousnesses, and for those who believe in the existence of soul – two(2) autonomous souls. Split-brain experiments revealed that one(1) human consciousness can be artificially divided into two(2) consciousnesses by simple cutting of corpus callosum.

When two hemispheres of the (healthy) brain are connected via corpus callosum link then such man is unable to accomplish two different independent tasks with two hands simultaneously because one hemisphere hinders another hemisphere by sending commands via corpus callosum link. For example, if a man takes a pencil into each of two hands and tries to draw two independent pictures with both hands simultaneously (for example a circle with one hand and a square with another hand) – the man will be unable to cope with such task. You can try doing that yourself and see if you will succeed. However when corpus callosum link is cut then after such surgery the man has no troubles to accomplish two different independent tasks with both hands simultaneously – as for example, drawing a circle with one hand and a square with another hand is an easy task for split-brain patient.

Here is the documentary movie which shows experiments with split-brain patient.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfGwsAdS9Dc
Severed Corpus Callosum.
Length: 10 minutes

In year 1981 Roger Wolcott Sperry was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his work with split-brain research. Roger Sperry's split-brain experiments showed that the man can have independent thoughts in the right side of the brain that control man’s behavior yet remain outside of man’s awareness.
Roger Sperry's coworker Michael Gazzaniga who worked with Sperry on the first split-brain experiments, continued to work further with split-brain patients. Michael Gazzaniga came to the conclusion that there are not two, but actually hundreds of independent, specialized modules of thinking in man’s brain that all compete for control of the man’s behavior. According to Michael Gazzaniga one of those thinking modules tries to explain all of our behavior, even though it is only in control occasionally. Michael Gazzaniga has named this module as the “interpreter module”. Thomas R. Blakeslee concluded that this “interpreter module” is actually the physical basis of what people normally call the “self”. Thomas R. Blakeslee renamed “interpreter module” into “self module”. According to Thomas R. Blakeslee most behavior of the man is controlled by other modules of the mind to which the self module has no access.
Physicist Michio Kaku in his book “The Future of the Mind: The Scientific Quest to Understand, Enhance, and Empower the Mind” wrote that “MIT professor Marvin Minsky, one of the founding fathers of artificial intelligence, told me that the mind is more like a “society of minds,” with different submodules, each trying to compete with the others.”.
In Neurocluster Brain Model we use the term “main personality” instead of Gazzaniga’s “interpreter module” and Blakeslee’s “self module”.


More detailed description of Neurocluster Brain Model is at the address:
http://neuroclusterbrain.com