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Marijuana - History

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Reference to the hemp plant (cannabis) appears as early as 2700 B.C. in a Chinese manuscript. European explorers arriving to the New World first observed the plant in 1545. It was considered to be such a useful crop that early Jamestown settlers in 1607 began its cultivation and later, in Virginia, farmers were fined for not growing hemp. In 1617, it was introduced into England. From the seventeenth to the mid-twentieth century marijuana was considered a household drug useful for treating such maladies as headaches, menstrual cramps, and toothaches. From 1913-38 a stronger variety of the marijuana plant was cultivated by American drug companies for use in their drug products. It was called Cannabis americana.

Prior to 1910, the growth and trade of marijuana (and hashish—a resinous substance produced by the flowering parts of the plant) was fairly limited. However, following the conclusion of the Mexican Revolution, trafficking of the drug opened up, making growth and transport of the drug easier and more profitable. The business expanded to reach the ports of New Orleans where it was sold on the black market, alongside other strains of the plant, to sailors passing through, as well as local residents. It wasn't long before the trend of marijuana use began to overshadow the historic applications of cannabis as a medicine.

The drug soon became popular (especially its stronger derivatives—hashish, charas, ghanja, and bhang) among musicians who maintained that smoking marijuana gave them the inspiration they needed to play their music. These musicians glamorized the use of marijuana. Some claimed it gave them contemplative vision and a feeling of overwhelming freedom and verve; others not only used the drug themselves, but sold it to a variety of customers. As the entertainers went on the road, so did their drugs. Eventually, use of marijuana, alcohol, and other mind-altering drugs spread and soon became prevalent in major cities worldwide, such as Chicago, New York, London, and Paris.

Many of the musicians and entertainers of the Jazz Age who used drugs and alcohol relied heavily on gangland kings for their "gigs" (jobs). Frequently, these gangsters were able to provide (for a fee) a variety of drugs and bootleg alcohol for the performers and their staffs.

In the 1920s, as a result of the amendment prohibiting the use of alcoholic beverages (Prohibition), marijuana use as a psychoactive drug began to grow. Even after the repeal of Prohibition in 1933, marijuana was widely used, as were morphine, heroin, and cocaine. In 1937, 46 states banned the use of marijuana along with other narcotic drugs. The popular perception, however, was that marijuana was not as addictive as narcotics. It is classified today as a drug that alters mood, perception, and image, rather than as a narcotic drug. It is still considered a Schedule I drug, which means it is considered a dangerous drug with no medical use. A bill has been proposed to re-classify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, a dangerous drug with limited medical use.

By the 1960s it was widely used by the young from all social classes. It is estimated that in 1994, 17 million Americans had used marijuana, and about 1.5 million of these Americans smoke marijuana regularly. The presence of more potent strains of marijuana has widened the debate between the drug enforcement authorities and the advocates of decriminalizing marijuana use because it is, they argue, not in the same class as the more addictive drugs. Others assert that marijuana is a "gateway" drug to the harder drugs and therefore argue that rigid laws against its use and distribution should remain in effect.

Since 1976 laws allowing the limited use of marijuana for medical purposes (medical marijuana) have been enacted in 35 states (by 2003 some of these laws had expired or were specifically not renewed by state legislators). In 2002 there were broad efforts to decriminalize marijuana use in Canada and the United Kingdom. Within the United States, most state level reforms are rendered ineffectual by over-riding federal drug laws. Despite federal laws, since 1996, eight states have enacted various laws that effectively allow the limited and controlled use of medical marijuana. In those states, however, doctors and medicnal users still face possible federal criminal prosecution.

In May 1999, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) released a policy that described the need for further research into the use of marijuana for medical treatment. The NIH maintains that the use of marijuana for medical reasons must involve an analysis of the benefits of use as well as the potential risks.

A number of marijuana legalization initiatives—ranging from legalizing limited personal use of marijuana to allowing farmers to grow marijuana to produce non-psychoactive hemp—have been rejected by voters in recent years. In November 2002, a trio of proposed reforms in Nevada, South Dakota, and Arizona were defeated by voters in those states. Supporters of marijuana legalization cite non-binding resolutions in San Francisco and Massachusetts that encouraged local and state legislators to develop decriminalization strategies as evidence of continued public interest in reforming marijuana laws. Supporters of marijuana-law reform also continue to assert poll evidence that indicates a significant portion of the public supports exploring the limited legalization of marijuana for medical use.



Marijuana - Effects [next]

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over 3 years ago

Ok, seriously, this is getting out of hand. To tell the blatant and honest truth, Marijuana is not a drug. It is a natural occuring herb that grows in the earth. You can do all the research you want but that will never be proven wrong. THC is a chemical that comes from burning the plant. All you idiots are fighting over something totally and utterly retarded. Pot has never killed anyone, and never will. What kills is the idiots who smoke pot, get high, and don't know how to control themselves. Pot doesn't alter your mind or your capability to make choices for yourself. All it does is make you hungry, happy, and tired. Being hungry and tired comes from your body trying to fight off the THC as it is a chemical your body is not used to. The only reason that there has ever been a death over Marijuana is from drug lords fighting over control, or somebody not being able to control themselves and so do something stupid, and that's their own damn fault. To blame Marijuana is just stupid. I am sick of hearing these damn debates over it. The only problem is that all you damn hippies need to grow up and learn to control yourself and maybe it wouldn't cause a problem. Of course, everybody knows that Marijuana is used for medicinal purposes, so let me ask you. If Marijuana kills people, why prescribe it to people? Find me a good answer for that. I bet you can't because there isn't one. The government does these kind of things to get it's people fighting. If the people were to ban as one then we would overthrow the government which they don't want, so they feed you lies, on both sides, so that no one agrees with another. Do some damn research, all of you, and stop being stupid.

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about 4 years ago

Truth seeker stated that marijuana causes deadly car crashs, well then so does alcohol, and a number of other things, like texting, sleepiness, and being distracted all leads to car crashs. But hey, the idiot who smokes weed and drives isnt quite as dumb as the jackass who drinks and drives.

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over 3 years ago

Before I begin, let me just state that I do NOT smoke marijuana. Although, I am FOR it's legalization and taxation. I was raised as a naive child to think that marijuana was a harmful drug and fully believed that up until I was in my twenties. Those of you thinking that marijuana is harmful to your physical, mental, and moral health please take the time to watch a non-biased documentary called the union. Then, do your research. Please keep in mind which sources you are reading from. Most are biased and state opinions and not facts. Those supposed "facts" that are stated should be questioned. Ask for the site's sources. Do not be ignorant to medical facts. Do not take another person's "word" seriously, because most people ration out false information based on their own opinions. As I had previously stated, I do not smoke marijuana, but for those curious as to why, it is because I do not like to alter my natural state. I also do not drink, smoke tobacco, or take pharmaceutical drugs. I am a completely healthy person who manages their health by diet, exercise, and a positive attitude. Thank you for reading and hopefully I have encouraged some of you do study up! :)

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over 3 years ago

"this marijuana debate has been raging since AMERICA became a country. The reason i say that is bcause marijuana is a drug, yes but it is a plant as well. something from nautre that has been provied..."

That's hogwash. Cannabis was first criminalized at the state level in California in 1913. It took until 1937 when Congress passed the Marihuana Tax Act of 1337 to complete the idiotic criminalization process. The AMA vigorously complained about the use of the word marihuana because they had no clue that it was a Spanish slang word for cannabis. The AMA testified before Congress in defense of keeping cannabis legal for medical applications.

The earliest settlers in the US passed a law requiring everyone to grow cannabis because they needed it for industrial applications.

Tincture of cannabis was sold over the counter as a patent medicine until 1937. It wasn't removed from the US pharmacopoeia until 1941 and to make that happen it took considerable arm twisting from the Feds including 3000 doctors being charged and convicted of writing illegal prescriptions from 1938 to 1941.
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Truth Seeker you need to change your posting alias because you are a bald faced liar and your alias is tantamount to deceptive advertising. P.S. An auto collision when impaired is caused by people choosing to break the law and to go driving while impaired, not by cannabis.

Regardless, cannabis consumers who are arrested for driving impaired from taking it are extremely uncommon. The ERs might not keep track of which substance's abuse contributed to a traffic collision but the cops and the courts sure do.

Your claim that ER people will support your twisting of the truth to unrecognizable is laughable on it's face. I've had the pleasure of communicating with several ER personnel including doctor's and nurses and they sure don't say anything remotely resembling your spun from whole cloth fiction about that. Fully 1/3 of ER visits are precipitated by abuse of drinking alcohol.

It's time for the Know Nothing prohibitionists to quit their bald faced lying about cannabis. Just stop it.
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"Marijuana Use Seldom Associated With Emergency Room Visits, Study Says" from:
http://norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=8265

"Patterns and correlates of drug-related ED visits: results from a national survey" from:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20627209

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about 4 years ago

this to you guys, this marijuana debate has been raging since AMERICA became a country. The reason i say that is bcause marijuana is a drug, yes but it is a plant as well. something from nautre that has been provied its the people that take advantage and abuse it i think we need to stop worring about the pot thing i want it to be legallized but i don't want it to be,and the reason is because either or people are still giong to abuse it, we should have campaigning to people saying he stop being an idiot!i don't care if you do drugs, but don't do them when. . your working, say giving a friend advice when he needs you, holidays when your with your family, at school or studying, weddings or funerals,driving, etc.!.! you are your own enemy don't fail into the clutches of the biast politcians who only want your money and don't care about you or your family,

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almost 4 years ago

weed should be legal because it would save money and make money plus it would save the enviromenal health so it should be leagal

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about 4 years ago

Truth Seeker, I do agree with you. But, like Hemp buddy, you slant things your way not mentioning the percentage. Ask an ER person and most will say alcohol intoxication is more dominant. All drugs are bad when not taken correctly. I have had enough family & friends die from alcohol and tobacco which is legal when you become of age, and the other drug, (and most dont think it is a drug, but it is) sugar, anyone can buy it. Lung & throat,, and liver cancer, diabetes, and obesity all ailment caused by what the best country in the world was built and founded on "the Good Ol' U,S of A". So, if some of us want to add something that would be a drop in the bucket in the "Cause of death" category let us. Use your time in stopping the sale of junk food to kids or cigarette & alcohol marketing towards children.

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over 3 years ago

Truthseeker, there is no possible way that Marijuana is ten times more potent then it was when our founding fathers had it. The highest percentage ever found in THC was not above 37%. If they had gotten high the % obviously wasn't that low

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over 3 years ago

this is interesting stuff

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over 4 years ago

This is some nicely disguised PROPOGANDA, which fails to mention how the 1937 Marijuana tax act came about. The founder of our Narcotics Agency was bribed into spreading LIES about the effects and associated racism with its use. Since then we have been lied to with various propoganda about the "scientific studies" our government has paid for to find the negative effects of cannabis. They have never paid for a study to find the benefits because they don't want to admit they are wrong and the funding would be cut off from alcohol and tobacco industries. It is the least toxic of mostly all medicine and is a PLANT. Think about it why are we spending all this money to ban a PLANT. Rediculous. Look at the statistics regarding all legal drugs and you will see. This article provides half-truths and definatley is biased. Cannabis became illegal for illegitimate profit-driven reasons the time is now to regulate and tax! Stop providing criminal organizations with money. Instead, create tons of new legitimate jobs and tax revenue. Not to mention restore the rights of users. Stop grouping cannabis with all drugs, drugs kill people and CANNABIS NEVER HAS KILLED ANYONE.

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over 3 years ago

I think it should be leagal because it has no harmfull effects cures cancer eases pain helps depression and just makes you heel good inside so LEAGALIZE IT, DON'T CRITIZICE IT!!!!

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over 3 years ago

Marijuana should also be legal cause trees take 10 years to grow and marijuana takes about a month.

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over 3 years ago

I'M GOING TO GET HIGH!!!!!!!

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over 3 years ago

woww i diddnt even know all of that

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over 3 years ago

Marijuana - History

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over 3 years ago

UMM i created weed and it pisses me off that the people i created cant smoke it.

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over 3 years ago

I think that Marijuana should be legal because it helps cure cancer. Plus, It makes you have an amazing feeing! LEGALIZE IT FO' SHO'

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over 2 years ago

I just wanted to respond to a few things...
---Hempforvictory wrote:
"They have never paid for a study to find the benefits because they don't want to admit they are wrong and the funding would be cut off from alcohol and tobacco industries."---
That is actually not true--the government has paid for a few studies (limited as they are) however, the results were not what they wanted or expected. The results showed the limited danger of marijuana and the AMA at this time ALSO suggested marijuana was not an especially dangerous drug (yes it is a drug - it alters a person mentally and physcically and that defines it as a drug -regardless of how intense or little the effects are). At this time all 48 states had created laws against marijuana with the exception of medical use but the Government created so many requirements for the doctors who wanted to give prescriptions so the doctors felt like the "effort was not worth the time or money wasted." If you are interested in a really detailed and fantastic timeline of events, check out www.procon.org and search marijuana timeline. It's pretty thorough (2900BC to Present!). Good and acurate information :)

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over 3 years ago

weed should be legal over achool. it is alot easyer to become addictied to that then weed. plus it would also be the thing we need to get out of the depression

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over 3 years ago

bob

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over 3 years ago

you people are so stupid like me to try to legalize something that is so dangerous like your moms bad breath and i have a friend that raped her last night so you arer gay fagots

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over 3 years ago

Dumb ASSES!!!! Come on, if we legalize it, that wouldnt help. Doctors use it the way it should be used. That doesnt mean smoking your life away. Its really sad

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about 4 years ago

this is to truth seeker you are crazy, no one has ever died from marijuana, when is the last time you heard someone say he died from smoking to much weed never! alcohol has killed more americans then pretty much anything else, do some more research and then tell the story. go to your local hospital and ask if anyone has died from weed and then write me back

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about 4 years ago

Hempforvictory has stated that cannabis has never killed anyone, and that is not true. In hospitals, intoxication by alcohol and cannabis are reported as the same thing. Intoxicated drivers under the influence of cannabis who have caused deadly crashes are simply chalked up as "legally intoxicated" and the fact that cannabis was involved in the deadly crash never goes very far. Talk to more ER personnel and you will find that cannabis has and does kill people. Not spiked or laced stuff, but just the current super-powered cannabis that it 10 times more potent than anything our founding fathers ever heard of, much less smoked.

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over 3 years ago

(1)whats dose do your body once you somke for a while?

(2)and what dose it do to your brain

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over 2 years ago

mnbfglubyhuiyi4 h5utgrugurehguruighrui

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about 3 years ago


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about 3 years ago


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about 2 years ago

koyazaka.blogspot.com ganja jotek eram ra sudi

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about 2 years ago

A number of marijuana legalization initiatives—ranging from legalizing limited personal use of marijuana

Read more: Marijuana - History - Drug, Medical, Laws, and Drugs - JRank Articles http://science.jrank.org/pages/4128/Marijuana-History.html#ixzz1tdSKp800 koyazaka.blogspot.com